B Explanatory memorandum
by Mrs John-Calame, rapporteur
1 Biological diversity, or biodiversity, is the variation
of all life forms. There are three types of biodiversity: genetic
diversity within species, diversity between species and diversity
of ecosystems. Exchanges and interaction between these different
entities give them their ability to adapt, which is why life has
been able to sustain itself for billions of years. As living beings,
we are part of that biodiversity.
2 The healthiness of ecosystems hinges on biodiversity and the
benefits for humans are numerous, through fundamental functions
including food production, recycling of water and air, supply of
raw materials, energy resources, ingredients for remedies, protection
against natural disasters, the contribution made to our culture
and leisure activities and the economic value linked in particular
3 Despite, or perhaps because of, these many benefits, biodiversity
is under threat today from the destruction of entire habitats, the
over-exploitation of soil, marine environments and certain species
(excessive hunting/fishing), the fragmentation of environments,
air and water pollution or the spread of invasive species.
4 The climate change under way (heatwaves, tropical cyclones,
floods, drought) is also a threat to biodiversity. Global warming
is an established fact. There is clear, worldwide evidence of it
in the increase in average air and sea temperatures, extensive snow
and ice melt and rising average sea-levels. It constitutes an unprecedented
challenge to biodiversity because it is combined with other anthropogenic
5 Human activities are therefore the main activities responsible
for the depletion of biodiversity and are also causing an exponential
increase in climate change.
6 Our impact on the Earth has been considerable; no other living
being has transformed its habitat as much as we have. But those
changes are happening far too quickly for species to adapt and without
that adaptation they become extinct.
7 Ecosystems are our habitat. If we compare them to a house,
living species are the bricks in its walls. Each one has its role
to play even if, in isolation, it appears to be of little importance.
In its own quiet way, this construction is what guarantees our quality
of life. Every species that dies out is a hole in the wall. With successive
extinctions, the ecosystem becomes more fragile, the house deteriorates
and the balance is threatened. The entire structure will ultimately
collapse and we will find ourselves without protection or resources.
8 In the history of the Earth, the emergence and extinction
of species has hinged until now on natural causes. Occasionally,
there have been particular events leading to mass extinctions, as
with the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. That was the fifth great
extinction and the last one to date. The pace of the trends observed at
present is far swifter. Will we be the cause of the sixth mass extinction
on our planet?
2 Interplay between
biodiversity, climate change and human activities
9 Climate has changed throughout the Earth’s history,
and biological evolution – the emergence of new species and extinction
of others - has also been continuous for over four billion years.
These processes started long before humans emerged as the result
of this very evolution and they are still at work today.
10 During the latter part of the 20th century, substantial quantities
of carbon were released as a result of industrial activity and the
deforestation that had been going on for several centuries in both
the mid and the high latitudes and, in particular, in tropical regions.
Most of the warming observed in the last fifty years is probably
the result of increased concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs).
11 Nowadays, however, the impact of human activities on climate
change and biodiversity is such that they are threatening the balance
of natural environments and, by extension, the survival of mankind,
since we are dependent on biodiversity and on the climatic conditions
in which we have evolved.
12 To appreciate the unprecedented speed of current climate change,
one has to bear in mind that at the end of the last ice age, under
entirely natural conditions, world temperatures rose by a few degrees
over several thousands of years. Over the last millennium only a
few tenths of a degree separated the warmest periods (during the
Medieval Warm Period) and the coldest (during the Little Ice Age).
It is not so much the absolute temperature figures as the unprecedented
rate of increase that will determine how ecosystems respond.
13 The impact of human activity on climate and biodiversity are
manifold and the following aspects should probably be distinguished.
14 Some human activities have a direct two-fold impact on climate
and biodiversity. For example, cutting down old forests causes both
climate change due to the release of carbon dioxide from burning
or decaying of woody biomass and species extinction due to habitat
loss. As another example, the drainage of wetlands leads to carbon
dioxide from peat burning or decay and the loss of rare habitats
that are home to an abundance of specialist species. Opening up
oil and gas fields in untouched wild areas would also impact both
climate and biodiversity.
15 The intensification of livestock breeding and agriculture
is a related and fairly complex issue. The increased use of mineral
fertilisers is resulting in nitrogen oxide emissions and the production
of manure from big livestock farms is leading to an increase in
methane emissions. These two gases contribute to the greenhouse
effect. Biodiversity loss is occurring at the same time because
of the conversion of species-rich semi-natural grassland into arable
land, the loss of field margins and hedgerows and the replacement
of traditional breeds with modern uniform genetic stock (in some
cases genetically modified).
16 One example of the potentially disastrous consequences of
a loss of genetic biodiversity in crops is the current spread of
the Western corn rootworm. The larvae of this beetle eat maize roots,
devastating crops, which can no longer stand upright. Previously,
a plant attacked in this way secreted a substance through its leaves
and roots which attracted the pest's natural predators (a small
parasitic wasp). But at present, the most widely grown variety of
maize in the United States and Europe has lost the gene needed to
produce this alarm signal and, with it, the ability to defend itself.
After very heavy crop losses, research efforts are now under way to
find and reinsert this missing gene into the varieties of maize
17 At the same time, climate change (induced by humans) is also
impacting on biodiversity. An example that has recently had a lot
of publicity is the thinning and shrinking of polar ice that is
threatening the survival of polar bears. Less discussed but also
well known are the dangers to all the other components of Arctic biodiversity.
Climate change is also having important effects on mountain biodiversity.
18 As a result of climate change, species will feel the need
to adapt, particularly by migrating towards more favourable areas.
However, habitat fragmentation limits these population movements
and reduces species' abilities to adapt. Moreover, biodiversity
loss makes ecosystems less resilient to climate change, as they
are less resistant to disease or invasive plants.
19 Because the problems are inter-related, the solutions should
also be considered in a co-ordinated manner.
20 For example, measures leading to less intensive and more sustainable
agriculture would contribute to both climate change mitigation and
biodiversity conservation. Conservation of old woodlands would also
have an impact on both.
3 Influence of humankind on biodiversity
and climate change
21 Human activities strongly influence ecosystems and
biodiversity and disrupt climate. The areas of activity where the
consequences are most marked are land use, urban and road infrastructure,
raw materials procurement, agriculture, forestry and water management.
Each of these topics is discussed in detail below.
22 Misuse of land can result in problems with surface water retention.
There are higher risks of erosion and landslips during disaster
23 The extension of towns and villages and building construction
are eating up fields, woodland, wetlands or wasteland (destroying
burrows, habitats and nests) and endangering biodiversity as a result.
Urban architecture leaves little room for wildlife; concrete and
glass prevent plants from growing and establishing ecosystems.
24 Urbanisation gives rise to other problems such as the air
pollution caused both by increasing numbers of cars and by non-renewable
energy use, waste production and disposal, the building of roads
and car parks rendering the ground impermeable and destroying all
plant life, the destruction of green corridors that enabled species
to move around freely (loss of green belt land, etc.) and the destruction
of orchards, fertile farming land, wetlands and streams (which are
key habitats for dozens of plant and animal species).
25 Furthermore, the new fashion of decorating gardens with "exotic"
plants does nothing to foster local biodiversity, rather the opposite
in fact, because most are invasive species and compete with local
flora, threatening the stability of the ecosystem.
26 Transport infrastructures comprise a great variety of different
modes, contexts and flows, including public transport, rail networks,
“soft” transport options and river transport. They have a strong
environmental impact during both construction (through occupation
of space, building sites) and use (pollution, noise).
27 They also have major social and economic effects such as making
areas less isolated and stimulating exchanges. Choices concerning
forms of transport (public or private, rail, river or road), or
energy sources (electricity, petroleum-based products, hydrogen
or agrofuels) also have a significant environmental impact.
28 Mining and oil extraction can also have significant environmental
effects. To minimise these, it is advisable to anticipate problems
when choosing equipment (focusing on questions such as fuelling
systems, flow management and waste management).
29 Poorly managed farming and forestry activities can also cause
serious environmental problems. Nearly 39% of the world’s surface
is given over to crops and grazing and another 30% is occupied by
forests (according to Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) statistics).
30 Agriculture produces substantial GHG emissions. Farming activities
and changes in land use account for about one third of total carbon
dioxide emissions and are the largest source of methane (produced
by livestock rearing and flooded rice fields) and nitrous oxide
(deriving mainly from the use of mineral nitrogen fertiliser).
31 Agriculture accounts for some 70% of the world’s water consumption
and up to 95% in many developing countries, and this affects the
availability of water for other human uses.
32 Water quality could be improved by changes in farming practices,
such as more effectively managing needs, reducing salinisation,
combating soil erosion or avoiding harmful sub-surface run-off due
to pesticides and livestock waste. All these measures, associated
with waste-water recycling, could lead to an increase in the water
available through replenishment of ground water and improve the
quality of water resources.
4 Problem of CO2 in relation
to the carbon cycle
33 The bulk of global warming observed over the last
fifty years is probably due to increased concentrations of greenhouse
gases, the main ones being water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane,
nitrous oxide and ozone.
34 Carbon dioxide is a natural greenhouse gas and, in itself,
not toxic. Increased concentrations of it in the atmosphere linked
to human activities is nevertheless one of the causes of global
warming. In the latter part of the 20th century considerable quantities
of carbon were released as a result of industrial activity and deforestation,
in tropical regions in particular.
35 Control of CO2 concentrations is coupled
to the natural carbon cycle. However, the short-circuiting of that
cycle caused by the burning of fossil fuels bears much of the blame
for today's problems.
36 The dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems vary, depending on
the interaction of a number of biogeochemical cycles which humans
can disrupt, particularly the carbon cycle, the nutrient cycles
and the water cycle.
37 Because they store carbon in the living biomass, decomposing
organic material and the soil, terrestrial ecosystems play an important
role in the global carbon cycle. Atmospheric CO2 is
fixed by photosynthesis in plant biomass, while respiration, decomposition
and combustion transform organic carbon into CO2. These processes
sustain the natural circulation of carbon between ecosystems and
the atmosphere. Human activity, particularly in the areas of land
use, reassignment of land, forestry and industrial use, alters carbon
stocks and exchanges between pools.
38 Net carbon absorption by terrestrial ecosystems is caused
by several factors, such as agricultural practices, the natural
regeneration in the mid and high latitudes, the indirect effects
of human activities (such as fertilisation by atmospheric CO2 and
depositing of nutrients) and natural and anthropogenic climate change. It
is currently impossible to establish the relative significance of
each of these processes, which vary from one region to another.
39 One strategy for reducing atmospheric CO2 concentrations
is to promote sequestration of atmospheric carbon by plants and
in soil. Increased root biomass and organic material enhances the
retention of water and nutrients in soil and hence the productivity
of land. Changes in agricultural management practices can accelerate
or slow down rates of carbon fixation over a relatively short period.
40 Similarly, increasing the volume of above-ground biomass (trees
and bushes) enhances atmospheric carbon fixation. Sequestration
rates vary according to species, soil type, local climate, topography
and management methods. Forest plantations and forestry-pasture
systems are examples of the type of reassignment of land which fosters
atmospheric carbon fixation.
41 It must also be borne in mind that carbon can be captured
in biomass then stored in wood products for decades. Neither should
it be forgotten that energy production from biomass, that is to
say from wood by-products and tree or other crops planted especially
for this purpose, may result in a major reduction in net GHG emissions
by replacing fossil fuels.
42 Even so, the use of wood biomass as a substitute for fossil
fuels raises complex issues. As long as the amount of energy gained
is greater than that used for cutting and extraction, this would
help to reduce climate change. However, far more sophisticated safeguards
are needed to avoid the negative effects of increased wood extraction
on biodiversity. Even more complex is the issue of biofuels derived
from agriculture ("agrofuels"). In this field, initial enthusiasm
has given way to a strong scepticism. Clearly, a balanced view is needed.
It is indeed true that much of the intensive agrofuel production
has been at the expense of biodiversity and in some cases it has
also been a poor choice from the climate point of view. However,
it is possible to produce agrofuels in a sustainable way that is
both good for climate change mitigation and compatible with biodiversity
43 Global warming tends to inhibit the sequestration of atmospheric
carbon dioxide by terrestrial and marine ecosystems, thus increasing
the volume of man-made emissions remaining in the atmosphere. The
outcome is like a never-ending spiral.
44 Swift action is required. We must stop fuelling global warming,
which has now become inevitable. We should, for example, be making
massive reductions in our GHG emissions and taking immediate protection measures.
45 Warming inhibits atmospheric CO2 fixation
on land and at sea, thereby increasing the share of anthropogenic
emissions that remains in the atmosphere. This positive feedback
from the carbon cycle accelerates the increase in volumes of atmospheric
CO2 and results in greater climate change
for any given emissions scenario.
46 The major driving forces behind future GHG emission trends
will continue to be population growth, economic and social development
and the pace and direction of technological progress.
47 GHG emissions must decline for concentrations of these gases
in the atmosphere to level out.
48 The mitigating measures taken over the next two to three decades
will determine to a great extent whether it is possible to stabilise
concentrations. However, we will only be able to control carbon
dioxide emissions if we use less fossil fuel.
5 Energy resources
49 The need to reduce GHG emissions has forced us into
a headlong rush to find new energy sources to replace fossil fuels,
and we are now using alternative energy sources without really assessing
what their medium and long-term effects might be.
50 The growing demand for renewable energies increases competition
for natural resources.
51 There is currently quite a controversy about the use of agricultural
biofuels. Ultimately, however, these are no more than diversions,
which may initially have derived from good intentions but actually
distract from the real problem. They do not really reduce our consumption;
they simply give it a "green" label, whereas in fact the use of
such fuels is not at all environmentally friendly.
52 Forestation and planting for bio-energy purposes may be a
means of restoring poor soil, curbing run-off, capturing carbon
in the soil and boosting rural economies, but they can also compete
with food production, increase drought and threaten biodiversity
if poorly implemented.
53 Not only is the reduction in GHGs only a relative one but
the fact that the biomass products involved, such as maize or sugar
cane, are not to be eaten means that fertilisers and pesticides
are used without any second thought, and monoculture is the norm.
54 Exceptions to this are, of course, waste-based bio-energy,
which seems the best way of disposing of waste. Otherwise, second-generation
biofuels are also showing promise.
55 However, there are other totally clean energies – such as
solar power – which can help to reduce GHG emissions without having
any other harmful effects on the environment. It would be enough
simply to install solar panels on roofs to be able to heat water
even in cloudy weather.
56 Real efforts have to be made to raise awareness among manufacturers
and the public about the need to reduce energy consumption and use
cleaner energies in order to cut GHG emissions.
57 This would enable us to meet Kyoto Protocol targets without
needing to sacrifice quality of life, change our lifestyles or adopt
new technologies. Unfortunately, people show little inclination
to buy more economical devices or install solar panels on the roofs
of their houses. Even in developing countries, people find it hard
to save energy.
58 Energy efficiency and the use of renewable energies also lend
themselves to interaction with sustainable development. In less
advanced countries, energy substitution can curb mortality and morbidity
by reducing air pollution, the uncontrolled use of firewood and
6 Survival of ecosystems and
adaptation of species
59 To appreciate the unprecedented speed of current
climate change, one has to bear in mind that at the end of the last
ice age, under entirely natural conditions, world temperatures rose
by a few degrees over several thousands of years. Over the last
millennium only a few tenths of a degree separated the warmest periods
(during the Medieval Warm Period) and the coldest (during the Little
Ice Age). It is not so much the absolute temperature figures as
the unprecedented rate of increase that will determine how ecosystems respond.
60 Account also needs to be taken of the growing frequency of
natural disasters, including storms, high rainfall, flooding, extreme
rises in sea-levels, prolonged drought and fire, which may have
a major impact on the health of ecosystems and jeopardise food production,
giving rise to famine, which in turn could trigger conflicts.
61 Ecosystems are crucial to the survival of the human race.
They supply food and drinking water, preserve our constantly changing
natural heritage, protect the soil, fix nitrogen and carbon, recycle
nutrients, control floods and filter pollutants.
62 Climate changes have an influence on ecosystems, which varies
from region to region depending on other factors such as land use,
fragmentation of habitats, substance input and invasive species.
We must prepare ourselves for significant changes in the species
make-up of ecosystems and the disappearance of a considerable number
of species if the climate continues to change. Should we also fear
a mass depletion of biodiversity, or will climate change offer species
threatened by human activity a chance to increase their numbers?
63 The rate of spread of species also plays an essential role
when it comes to the effect of rapid climate change. Studies show
that some species will not be able to reach sites with potential
for colonisation in time and they will therefore die out.
64 Diversity loss can be local or global depending on whether
it affects a key species. Local losses can have fatal consequences
for an ecosystem, while global losses will have irreversible consequences.
One well-known example is the decline in the number of bees and
the increasing rarity of various species of wild bee. These pollinator
insects are indispensable for the reproduction of plants, including
the ones we grow. If bees disappear, the production of food resources
runs the risk of being severely compromised.
65 Drawing on extensive data covering a wide range of species,
experts have concluded that the recent warming is strongly affecting
terrestrial ecosystems with the result that events in spring such
as bud break, bird migration and egg laying are occurring increasingly
earlier and certain animal and plant species’ ranges are shifting
towards higher altitudes or the poles.
66 It is thought that communities which will move towards the
poles or to higher altitudes will only partly resemble today's communities.
It could be that new ecosystems will emerge, and this would result
in radical changes in species make-up and have as yet unfathomable
67 The changes observed in marine and freshwater biological systems
are linked both to the rise in water temperatures and to related
changes in ice cover, salinity, oxygen levels, circulation rates,
pollution and overfishing. These changes are reflected in the following
ways: shifting geographical ranges and variations in the concentration
of algae, plankton and fish in the high-latitude oceans; an increase
in concentrations of algae and zooplankton in lakes in the high
latitudes and in mountain areas; changes in fish species' geographical ranges
and early migration of fish via water courses.
68 The effects of climate change on coral reefs are becoming
more and more obvious. It is difficult, however, to distinguish
the adverse effects of climate change from those deriving from other
sources (such as overfishing and pollution).
69 Rising sea-levels and human expansion are contributing to
the shrinkage of coastal wetlands and mangroves and thereby exacerbating
the damage caused in many regions by coastal flooding.
70 Unfortunately, studies have shown that the tropics, where
many vital areas are located, will be severely affected. A large
number of ecosystems there are over exploited or being converted
to farmland or plantations. The tropical forests may also be damaged
by insufficient rainfall. The situation is worrying when looked
at from the evolutionary viewpoint as the tropics are both the cradle
and the most visible illustration of biodiversity.
7 The effect on human beings
of biodiversity loss and climate change
71 We note the appearance of other effects of local
climate change on natural habitats and the human environment, although
many of them are somewhat masked by changes in non-climatic factors
such as the excess mortality rates caused by the European heatwave,
developments affecting the vectors of infectious disease in some
European regions and the earlier appearance of and upsurge in the
seasonal production of allergenic pollen in the northern hemisphere’s
mid and high latitudes.
72 The dramatic weather events of summer 2003 and last winter
were more serious and took place on an unprecedented scale. If there
is an increase in natural disasters such as excess precipitation,
floods, heatwaves and drought, there will be serious consequences
for all living organisms and the quality of human life will be undermined.
73 It is also to be feared that climate change will adversely
affect social and economic progress in developing countries.
74 According to the experts, it is difficult to dissociate ecological
challenges from social ones. To guarantee humankind a decent future,
society and the economy have to be redesigned along sustainable
lines as quickly as possible.
75 Among the most vulnerable industries, human settlements and
societies are those located on coastal or fluvial flood plains,
those whose economies are closely tied up with resources that are
strongly influenced by the climate and those in areas affected by
extreme weather conditions, particularly in cases of rapid urbanisation.
76 Disadvantaged groups can be particularly vulnerable, especially
when they are concentrated in danger zones.
77 Climate change will affect the state of health of millions
of people for reasons including greater malnutrition, an increase
in deaths, diseases and accidents due to extreme weather events,
heightened consequences of diarrhoeal illnesses, more cardiorespiratory
ailments as a result of high concentrations of tropospheric ozone
in urban areas due to climate change and changes in the geographical
ranges of certain infectious diseases and allergies.
78 Climate change will have some positive effects in temperate
zones, in particular a decrease in deaths linked to exposure to
the cold, and some mixed consequences, including changes in the
dissemination and potential for transmission of malaria in Africa.
On the whole, however, it is expected that the positive health effects
of warming will be offset by negative ones, particularly in developing
79 Factors with a direct influence on people’s health such as
education, medical care, public prevention measures, development
of facilities and economic growth will be decisive.
80 Climate change also stimulates the destructive spiral that
links social and ecological systems. Here again, it is economically
weak countries and poor population groups which will be most affected.
Climate change will continue to increase the pressure of exploitation
piled on ecosystems. These countries will suffer even more than
others from the impact of the process of environmental and social
deterioration. It will affect landless farmers, who depend on the
exploitation of natural resources, small African farmers, inhabitants
of shanty towns built in dried-up river beds, fishing communities,
nomads and hunters living in the peripheral areas of sand and ice
deserts. None of these people will be able to do much to resist
the new key players and new constraints. Insidious changes will
undermine their lifestyles and make them extremely vulnerable to natural
81 There is a need therefore to set up institutions capable of
supervising the management of natural resources and determining
levels for local, regional, national and world action, including
individual survival strategies, budget strategies, family and community
strategies and higher-level strategies (of a social, political, economic
or institutional nature).
82 Sustainable development is a tool for slowing biodiversity
loss, lessening the vulnerability of ecosystems and driving down
GHG emissions, in order to minimise our impact on climate change.
83 The rate and scale of future anthropogenic climate change
and their impact on biodiversity and human life will be determined
by national governments’ choices when defining social and economic
84 Specific measures need to be taken to safeguard biodiversity
and the climate in parallel, as these two causes offer considerable
potential for synergies. Measures to preserve and promote biological
diversity may also help to protect the climate, for example.
85 So-called “climate corridors” may help threatened species
to leave protected areas where living conditions are unsatisfactory
and migrate to more hospitable areas. Ecosystems will have to adjust,
but it should be considered to what extent adjustment without biodiversity
loss will be possible in view of the current intensity of land use
and the static nature of protected areas.
86 Co-ordinated action at all levels is required for the conservation
and creation of ecosystems, so that these systems can continue to
provide their ecological services in future. Only by managing and
preserving resources and keeping ecosystems intact can we expect
to combat poverty successfully.
87 Species-rich ecosystems can be an insurance against extreme
natural events. Climate change can provide an opportunity to alert
the public to biodiversity-related problems, thanks to the considerable
interest that these issues arouse.
88 Measures to restrict deforestation and natural habitat loss
can help to safeguard biodiversity and preserve soil and water resources
while being implemented in a socially and economically viable manner.
89 Changes in lifestyle and behaviour can help to mitigate the
effects of climate change in all spheres, and management methods,
changes in consumption habits, education and training methods, the
behaviour of building residents, the management of transport demand
and management tools in the industrial sector are some of the factors
that can have a positive influence in this area.
90 To sum up, by adopting a sustainable social and economic development
policy which limits GHG emissions it is possible to reduce vulnerability
to climate change and guarantee the future of the human race.
91 The effects of climate change can be curbed, and policies
encouraging energy efficiency and promoting renewable energy forms
often have economic benefits, increase energy security and result
in local reductions of pollutant emissions.
* * *
Reporting committee: Committee
on the Environment, Agriculture and Local and Regional Affairs
Reference to committee: Doc. 11484, Reference 3409 of 25 January 2008 and Doc. 12093, Reference 3648 of 29 January 2010
Draft recommendation adopted
unanimously by the committee on 7 April 2010
Members of the committee:
Mr Aleksei Lotman (Chairman), Mr John Prescott (1st Vice-Chairman), Mrs Elsa Papadimitriou (2nd
Vice-Chair), Mr Nigel Evans (3rd
Vice-Chairman), Mr Remigijus Ačas,
Mr Ruhi Açikgöz, Mr Artsruni
Aghajanyan, Mr Gerolf Annemans, Mr Miguel Arias
Cañete, Mr Alexander Babakov, Mrs Juliette Boulet, Mr
Tor Bremer, Mr Vladimiro
Crisafulli, Mr Karl Donabauer, Mr Miljenko Dorić,
Mr Gianpaolo Dozzo, Mr Tomasz Dudziński (alternate: Mr Stanislaw Huskowski), Mr József Ékes, Mr
Savo Erić, Mr Bill Etherington,
Mr Joseph Falzon, Mr Relu
Fenechiu, Mr Rafael Huseynov,
Mr Jean Huss, Mr Fazail İbrahimli, Mr Stanislav Ivanov, Mr Igor
Ivanovski, Mr Birkir Jon Jonsson, Mr Stanisław Kalemba, Mr Guiorgui Kandelaki, Mr
Oskar Kastēns, Mr Haluk Koç,
Mr Juha Korkeaoja, Mr Bojan
Kostreš, Mr Pavol Kubovič, Mr Paul Lempens, Mr François Loncle,
Mrs Kerstin Lundgren, Mr Theo Maissen,
Mrs Christine Marin, Mr Yevhen
Marmazov, Mr Bernard Marquet, Mr Alan Meale, Mr Peter Mitterrer,
Mr Pier Marino Mularoni, Mr Adrian Năstase (alternate: Mr Attila
Bela Ladislau Kelemen), Mr
Aleksandar Nenkov, Mr Pasquale Nessa,
Mr Thomas Nord, Mrs Carina Ohlsson, Mr Joe O’Reilly, Mr Holger Ortel
(alternate: Mr Axel Schäfer),
Mr Dimitrios Papadimoulis, Mr Germinal Peiro, Mr Ivan Popescu, Mr
Cezar Florin Preda, Mr Gabino PucheRodriguez-Acosta, Mr Lluís Maria de Puig i Olìve, Mrs Jadwiga Rotnicka
(alternate: Mr Dariusz Lipinski),
Mr René Rouquet, Mr Giacento Russo,
Mr Džavid Šabović, Mr Fidias Sarikas,
Mr Leander Schädler, Mr Mykola Shershun, Mr Hans Kristian Skibby,
Mr Ladislav Skopal, Mrs Karin Strentz,
Mr Valerij Sudarenkov, Mr Laszlo Szakacs, Mr Vyacheslav Timchenko, Mr Dragan Todorović,
Mr Nikolay Tulaev, Mr Tomas Ulehla,
Mr Mustafa Ünal, Mr Serafin Urechean, Mr Peter Verlič, Mr Harm Evert
Waalkens, Mr Hansjörg Walter
NB: The names of those members who took part in the meeting
are printed in bold
Secretariat to the committee:
Mrs Agnès Nollinger, Mr Bogdan Torcătoriu and Mr Jérémie Zaloszyc