memorandum by Ms Kyriakidou, rapporteur
1 The Parliamentary Assembly’s Committee on Equality
and Non-Discrimination has been working for years on issues related
to preventing and combating violence against women and domestic
violence. It has decided to draw up, for the first time, a specific
report on the perpetrators of violence, with the aim of supplementing
2 Prevention and assistance for victims of violence remain priorities.
Women victims of violence are the focus of our efforts and attention
but no real change can take place without involving men. A lasting
solution to violence against women can be found only by ensuring
that men, including those who commit violence, take part in awareness-raising
programmes aimed at the general public and in specific treatment
and intervention programmes when this proves necessary. This report
will enable good practices in this area to be highlighted.
3 Violence against women is deeply rooted in the inequality
between women and men and it is perpetuated by a culture of tolerance
and denial. There is a clear link between the perception of women
in society and violence against women. Effective action to combat
violence against women is possible only if it is combined with activities
to prevent and combat inequality from an early age. It is important
to involve boys and men in combating stereotypes in the initial
stages in order to achieve results.
2 Aim and
scope of the report
My report stems from a motion for a resolution tabled
by Ms Nursuna MemecanNote
whom I would like to thank for her
initiative. Its aim is to investigate the specific methods of preventing
violence against women and domestic violence that focus on the perpetrators.
It sets out to review the situation in the Council of Europe member
States, provide information on the best existing practices and their
outcome and promote their implementation in other countries.
5 This report is based on documentary research and on information
collected at the hearing held by the Parliamentary Network “Women
Free from Violence” and the Committee on Equality and Non-Discrimination in
Strasbourg on 2 October 2013. During the hearing, the members of
the Network and the committee heard statements by Frédéric Matwies,
the author of the book “Il y avait un
monstre en moi” (“There was a monster in me”), Thangam
Debbonaire, Research Manager for Respect in the United Kingdom,
and Rosa Logar, co-founder of Women against Violence Europe (WAVE).
6 This report focuses on programmes for perpetrators in the
efforts to combat violence against women. Most programmes for perpetrators
of violence are aimed directly at men, but some may accept women.
This report will not deal with the participation of women in these
programmes, even if men may also be victims of violence.
3 Preventive intervention
and treatment programmes for perpetrators in the Istanbul Convention
The importance of prevention through specific action
with perpetrators was recognised by the Council of Europe Convention
on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic
Violence (CETS No. 210, Istanbul Convention), Article 16 of which
focuses on this question. The convention lays down the obligation
for the authorities to support preventive interventions with perpetrators
and treatment programmes designed to help perpetrators change their
attitudes, adopt non-violent behaviour and refrain from reoffending. It
calls on States Parties to support these types of programme if they
exist already and to set them up if they have not yet done so. Support
for and the safety and human rights of victims must be considered
a priority. Article 16 addresses two separate types of programme:
- those targeting domestic violence
- those targeting sex offenders.
8 The explanatory report on the Istanbul Convention provides
further clarification. States Parties decide on the content of programmes,
but the Istanbul Convention encourages them to draw on existing
good practices and to focus on the responsibility of perpetrators
for their actions.
Persons participating in such programmes must be supervised
by professionals who have had specific training in psychology and
studied the causes of violence against women. They must also have
the necessary cultural and linguistic skills to enable them to work
with a wide diversity of perpetrators. These programmes should also
“closely co-operate with women’s support services, law-enforcement
agencies, the judiciary, probation services and child protection
or child welfare offices”.Note
10 I should mention that the Istanbul Convention is an instrument
that aims to change mindsets and provides an overall framework for
combating violence against women. It engages all State Parties in
taking measures to eliminate prejudices, customs and traditions
which are based on the idea of the inferiority of women or on stereotyped
11 The Istanbul Convention entered into force on 1 August 2014
in 11 Council of Europe member States and will do so on 1 November
2014 in France, Malta and Sweden. The States Parties will be required
to undertake, if they have not already done so, to set up preventive
intervention and treatment programmes for perpetrators of domestic
violence and for sexual offenders. They also undertake to allocate
sufficient resources to set up treatment and intervention programmes
where they do not yet exist.
12 Once it is set up, the Group of Experts on Action against
Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (GREVIO), will examine
the situation in the States Parties and report on the establishment, implementation
and effectiveness of this type of programme in its reports assessing
the implementation of the convention. GREVIO will be set up in the
year following the entry into force of the convention.
4 Programmes implemented
in some Council of Europe member States
13 A survey on violence against women in the European
Union conducted on 42 000 women by the Fundamental Rights Agency
of the European Union found that 13 million women in the European
Union had been victims of physical violence in the 12 months preceding
the survey, which amounts to 7% of the women between the ages of
18 and 74 in the European Union. It is claimed that one woman in
20 has been a victim of rape since the age of 15. In view of the
extent and seriousness of the problem, no means of combating and preventing
violence against women can be ignored or neglected.
The Council of Europe member States have taken a series of
measures with this goal in mind including the establishment of programmes
aimed at the perpetrators of violence. According to an analytical
study of the results of the fourth monitoring round on the implementation
of Recommendation Rec(2002)5 of the Committee of Ministers on the
protection of women against violence, 37 Council of Europe member
States of the 46 which took part in this monitoring round have set
up intervention programmes for the perpetrators of violence against women.Note
Twenty-nine States have programmes
which are aimed specifically at perpetrators of sexual assault.
Programmes tend to be similar and based on the Duluth Model
for the treatment of perpetrators of domestic violence.Note
Participation in them may be court-ordered
or voluntary. However, in Europe, participation in them is mainly
on a voluntary basis. In some countries, such as Latvia, participation
is exclusively on a voluntary basis. In countries such as Ireland
and Norway, where both models co-exist, the “voluntary” model is
far more prominent (for example, 98% of programmes undertaken in
16 So-called community programmes are intended for people who
were arrested but were not found guilty by the courts, often because
of a lack of evidence. Such programmes can provide for specific
work with victims and joint sessions involving both perpetrators
17 Programmes may combine individual therapy and group therapy.
Individual supervision helps perpetrators to understand their past
behaviour and think about the root causes. Combining the two types
of therapy enables perpetrators to use different ways of conveying
emotions such as verbalisation. Therapy of this type provides keys
to avoiding the rising tension which can result in violence. It
is essential to learn to stand back from events and keep one's emotions
in check in order to control potential outbursts of violence.
In Spain, the Institutional Act of 28 December 2004Note
provides for prevention measures,
whether educational (Sections 1 to 7 relating to gender-equality
awareness programmes geared to a specific education level – from
nursery school to higher education) or in the form of programmes
for perpetrators established by the prison authorities in exchange
for sentence adjustments (Section 42).Note
A monitoring system
has been set up and consists of a single database containing information
relevant for the security of victims of gender-based violence and
accessible to all agencies involved (police, courts, prison services,
19 There is no national federation of organisations that provide
such programmes, but informal networks that enable professionals
to meet and exchange experiences have been set up. In the absence
of any harmonisation of their content, there are three types of
programme: those established in prisons; those that constitute an
alternative to a prison sentence; and those based on voluntary participation.
Access to programmes established in prisons (Section 42 of
the 2004 Act) is on a voluntary basis but in exchange for a sentence
adjustment. Fifty out of Spain’s 68 prisons provide such programmes
and more than 2 000 inmates took part between 2001 and 2010.Note
21 Programmes that constitute an alternative to imprisonment
are provided for in Article 83 of the Criminal Code and consist
of re-education and psychology treatment for perpetrators of violence.
With the exception of Catalonia, prisons are responsible for their
implementation and have accordingly entered into partnerships with non-governmental
organisations (NGOs), university faculties of psychology and the
Finally, programmes based on voluntary participation are provided
by NGOs, autonomous communities and health services. The main obstacle
to working with perpetrators of violence in Spain is the lack of programme
co-ordination, especially those based on voluntary participation,
which have also suffered from a lack of funding since the beginning
of the economic crisis.Note
In 2006, around 2 100 men participated in programmes for perpetrators,
which are free of charge.Note
programmes are based on group work (86% in the prison context and
46% involving voluntary participation), 93% involve individual work
and 27% couple therapy. According to a survey of wives, the reoffending
rate is 33% in the year following the programme and 75% among those
who have not taken part in a programme.Note
In France, initiatives to set up treatment programmes
are mainly developed at department level, run by the Prison Rehabilitation
and Probation Services and associations.Note
The report submitted to the Senate in 2006 by Dr Roland CoutanceauNote
triggered a national discussion on
this subject and led to the adoption of new legislation. The Act
passed on 5 February 2008 requires socio-judicial supervision to
be provided and a care order to be made in respect of convicted
men considered likely to need treatment according to a medical report.
The courts can also issue a treatment order for any higher sentence.Note
The Prison Rehabilitation and Probation
Services are responsible for the implementation of programmes at
26 Section 15 of the Gender Equality Act (Loi pour l’égalité
entre les femmes et les hommes), which was passed on 23 July 2014,
provides for the insertion of the sub-paragraph “undergo awareness
training on preventing and combating gender-based violence at his
own expense” into provisions relating to obligations that a court
may impose as part of a criminal sentence (Article 41-1 of the Code
of Criminal Procedure and Articles 132-45 and 222-44 of the Criminal
Code). This addition is a direct consequence of the ratification
of the Istanbul Convention by France.
Individual and group therapy is proposed. Group therapy is
encouraged so that perpetrators can listen to others, learn to express
their emotions and take advantage of group dynamics. Information
on the law is provided in the process of making perpetrators fully
aware of what they have done.Note
Teams are made up of a woman and
a man and often pair a sociologist with a psychiatrist or a psychologist.
A programme of at least six sessions is held before a judgment is
delivered. A longer programme may be set up after the judgment.
A period of six months to one year is recommended.
28 Mr Frédéric Matwies, a former perpetrator of violence, has
decided to share his experience in order to raise public awareness
and encourage offenders to follow programmes that help them to admit
their responsibility. “By undergoing group therapy and individual
therapy, I learned how to manage conflicts better, avoid escalating
tensions and express myself only through the use of words”, he emphasised
at our hearing in Strasbourg in October 2013.
29 Programmes for perpetrators of sexual assault and rape are
specifically designed to treat convicted sex offenders in and outside
prison with a view to minimising reoffending and successfully reintegrating perpetrators
Programmes are supervised at national level by the National
Federation of Associations and Centres for the Care of Perpetrators
of Domestic and Family Violence (FNACAV).Note
FNACAV has opened 22 regional centres
and offers 14-day training courses over two years to train professionals
in leading support groups. There are a total of 30 associations
belonging to the federation that provide and lead the groups in
question and they are evenly spread across the country.Note
As part of the European STARR programme (Strengthening Transnational
Approaches to Reducing Re-offending), the aim of which is to reduce
reoffending in general, a pilot project was set up in 2009 under
the responsibility of the Mulhouse Regional Court and the results
of the work of support groups were published. 50% of perpetrators
of domestic violence who participated applied themselves well and
made good progress, 20% developed positively, 10% made less good
progress or were involved in a few incidents and 20% committed new
32 Awareness-raising campaigns aimed at men can also be effective.
A campaign held in Seine-Saint- Denis (France) focusing on the slogan
“You’re not a man if you beat her” had a very strong impact and
may have helped to change attitudes.
The Georgian Government adopted a concept paper on
the rehabilitation of perpetrators of domestic violence on 24 February
2011. It describes international experiences and principles and
guidelines on the rehabilitation of perpetrators of domestic violence.
It was signed by the Prime Minister and came into force on 1 June
34 In Iceland, Act No. 85/2011 provides for the removal
of the perpetrator of violence from the home, but does not require
him to undergo treatment.
According to the 2013 national report for the Work With Perpetrators
a psychological treatment programme
entitled Men Take Responsibility was set up in 1998 under a government initiative
for perpetrators of domestic violence. The programme was stopped
in 2003 owing to a lack of funding and then reopened in 2006 under
the authority of the Ministry of Social Affairs as part of the 2006-2011
Action Plan to combat domestic and sexual violence. However, since
the beginning of the economic crisis, there has been no publicity
for the programme. A 2012 report highlighted the cost of the programmes
and no new action plan has been submitted to the government.Note
The programme is based on voluntary participation, unless
the child protection services make an express request. Led by two
psychologists, it begins with holding individual meetings, and if
the perpetrator of violence responds to them correctly he joins
a support group, which is the main phase of the treatment and consists
of making him aware of his full responsibility for the acts of violence
he has committed. Two sessions take place in the presence of the
wife, one at the beginning and one at the end of the treatment,
and the wife is given the opportunity to describe the violence she
has suffered. From 2006 to 2010, 122 individuals attended at least
one session, and although no clear figures are quoted, the results
are still considered very satisfactory.Note
The programme does not cover the
entire country and is available only in Reykjavik. Perpetrators
can undergo their treatment programme at the Centre for Gender Equality.
37 A civil society initiative by a group of men belonging to
the Icelandic Feminist Association (Femínistafélag Íslands) has
also been set up and consists of distributing brochures and tee-shirts
at festivals to raise men’s awareness of their responsibility, as
well as of organising discussions on rape and domestic violence.
Since 1983, a large number of action plans to combat
domestic violence have been set up and are generally based on surveys
carried out by the Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress
Programmes for perpetrators of violence are based on two main
models: the Brøset model, which focuses on individual characteristics
in order to propose anger management therapies, and the Alternatives
to Violence model.Note
The Brøset model offers several
types of treatment, one of which is a general therapy aimed at both
male and female perpetrators of violence and based on voluntary
participation. This therapy extends over 34 sessions with groups
of four to six participants, supervised by two therapists. It has
been set up with the help of the health authorities. Another programme
has been adapted to prisons and accredited by the prison services.
Another therapy is based on the voluntary participation of men who
have been violent towards their family and consists of two group
meetings of six to eight men held twice a year. Another therapy
is based on the voluntary participation of male and female perpetrators
of violence against their spouse/family and consists of three individual
meetings followed by 30 hours of group work.
Since 1987, Alternatives to Violence has offered treatment
programmes for men who have been violent towards their partner and/or
Treatments are individual or group-based
and can last between 12 and 24 weeks. Another programme is designed
for convicted men and women who have violence and drug problems
(programme commissioned by the Ministry of Justice and Public Security),
with 12 sessions of conversation and exercises.
41 In addition, various NGOs and public authorities offer a variety
of programmes, ranging from support groups for women convicted of
violent offences (Norwegian Correctional Services) and national
mediation services, which provide a framework for dialogue between
victims and perpetrators of violence, to individual therapies for
teenagers who commit acts of violence against their family (Reform
– resource centre for men, which also offers treatments for violent
men based on voluntary participation).
Programmes for perpetrators of violence are regulated
in Poland by two Acts of Parliament.Note
The first dates from 2005Note
the second, passed in 2011,Note
down basic standards for this service, with in particular the obligation
to make prevention and protection programmes generally available
at local level. As a consequence, each year no fewer than 200 centres
nationwide cater for more than 3 500 perpetrators of violence.
In addition to these measures, there is broad co-ordination
between the Polish programmes and the probation services and other
For example, the police and judges
are accustomed (and sometimes are given training, as is the case
at the Wrocław Health Centre) to redirecting perpetrators to programmes
from the time they are questioned until when judgment is delivered
if they consider this necessary. Moreover, it is usual for the police
to be assisted by a psychologist during questioning in an effort
to set in motion a dialogue with the perpetrator of violence.
44 The Wrocław Health Centre is one of the largest Polish organisations
for intervention programmes for perpetrators of violence and has
set up a “change and protection programme” which consists of several individual
sessions as well as workshops and group therapy.
4.7 United Kingdom
45 In the United Kingdom, the Integrated Domestic Abuse
Programme (IDAP), which is accredited by the Home Office, enables
men convicted of domestic violence offences to have some influence
over the sentence they are given by attending an educational programme
lasting 27 sessions over two years. A court can also order the convicted
offender to participate. If he misses two sessions, he will be considered
in breach of his sentence, which will then be subject to review.
There is also a programme set up by the Prison Service and
Probation Service entitled the Healthy Relationships Programme.
This consists of offering, either in prison or community centres,
courses adapted to the risk presented by the perpetrator of violence.
One programme is designed for “moderate risk” offenders (28 group
sessions and three individual sessions spread over two months) and
another for “high risk” offenders (68 group sessions and 10 individual
sessions spread over five months). This programme is also accredited
by the government.Note
Many private initiatives have been introduced since the end
of the 1980s. The NGO RespectNote
of 24 to 48 weeks’ duration using a combination of techniques (cognitive
behavioural therapy, discussion, therapeutic engagement). Its programmes
are run by both male and female professionals, which means that
perpetrators can see a woman in a position of equality with a man.
This practice has been recognised to be a good one and is used in
other countries and by other organisations. The discussions with those
participating in the programme help them to understand what can
trigger an outburst of violence and to learn how to control themselves.
Participants learn about non-abusive communication techniques.
48 Participants remain in contact with their trainers throughout
the programme and can also contact them afterwards. There is a follow-up
programme including ongoing dialogue, home visits and consultations
Respect supervises programmes of several organisations, such
as the Hampton TrustNote
and the Make the Change Programme
Programmes for offenders supervised
make it clear that their aim is
to explain violence and discover its underlying causes, as well
as to teach the individual that he is in control of his own violent
behaviour and can choose not to be violent, to make the offender
aware that he is responsible for his actions, to make him understand
the impact of his violence on his victims and to learn how to stop
when his behaviour becomes abusive, and to teach him to listen and
to engage in dialogue to deal with disputes.
Pat Craven’s “Freedom Programme” provides educational weekends,
trains professionals to manage a therapy, offers online courses
and gives advice to women and to men.Note
It helps participants understand
the psychological characteristics of perpetrators of violence and
enables victims to realise the extent of the violence and its impact.
I found the diagram showing the characteristics of a “dominator”
5 Research work and
The Council of Europe is conducting a study to help
member States set up programmes for perpetrators of domestic and
sexual violence with the aim of complying with the obligations imposed
by the Istanbul Convention. It will be published in September 2014.Note
52 The Impact project, run by the NGO Dissens and financed by
the European Union Daphne programme, is currently evaluating programmes
for perpetrators across Europe. The results should be published
in the coming months.
I would like to add a few words about the Work With Perpetrators
European Network, which was set up in 2009 and is funded by the
European Commission through its Daphne programme. Its members come
from more than 20 European States and its Steering Committee is
made up of seven organisations: Dissens – Institut für Bildung und
Forschung e.V. (Germany) (co-ordination), Respect (United Kingdom),
Men’s Counselling Center (Austria), Conexus (Spain), AskovFonden
(Denmark), FNACAV (France) and the WAVE Network (Austria).Note
The network’s aim is to promote substantive work with perpetrators
of violence in accordance with international standards. Its members
have drawn up guidelines for programmes for perpetrators of violence, available
in 17 languages.Note
55 These guidelines emphasise co-operation with victim support
services and intervention systems, and stress not only the need
for perpetrators to take responsibility and be aware of what they
have done but also the importance of discussing a definition of
violence, inequalities and determining factors (socio-cultural, emotional,
behavioural). They also stress the importance of voluntary contact
between partners. Partners must be warned if the perpetrator of
violence leaves the programme or if there is a risk of danger.
6 Are rehabilitation
56 The willingness of perpetrators to acknowledge their
responsibility and their determination to take part are keys for
the success of these programmes. Men must be closely associated
in the design and implementation of programmes. The perpetrators
of violence are not just part of the problem; they must also be
recognised as a potential part of the solution. Programmes must
enable them to work on their ideas about relationships between women
and men so as to help them to make lasting changes to their behaviour
and attitudes. It is of utmost importance to ensure that perpetrators
complete the programmes so as to achieve some results.
It can be difficult to measure the impact of these programmes
over the long term. According to the study by Mr Gondolf released
in 2002, over 80% of men are still abstaining from violence four
years later and the majority of women say they feel much safer as
a result of the programme.Note
Thangam Debbonaire, from the NGO Respect,Note
confirmed that most men were
still abstaining from violence four years after the end of programmes.
She recommended a combination of measures to prevent violence and
combat it effectively, including penalties for perpetrators, safety
plans, risk assessment and implementation of programmes at local
level. These programmes were a means of supervising perpetrators over
an extended period during which they could be particularly vulnerable.
59 It is essential that these programmes are not set up in isolation
but are closely co-ordinated with women's support services, law-enforcement
agencies, the judiciary, probation services and child welfare offices.
There is better risk management when working with both perpetrators
and victims, especially concerning post-separation risks. Work with
perpetrators could be organised as part of a network, which would
co-ordinate the activities of various stakeholders, enabling them
to work together on protocols for prevention, punishment and the
supervision of victims and perpetrators of violence.
60 According to Rosa Logar, the director of WAVE, victim safety
is the key to the success of programmes for perpetrators of violence.
The priority therefore should be to help and protect victims by
providing shelters, assistance and support. Europe currently lacks
some 80 000 places in shelters for victims. Conviction rates are still
relatively low and charges are frequently dropped.
7 Prevention of violence:
a specific role for men
61 Men can play a key role in the prevention of violence
by raising the awareness of family and friends and mobilising their
networks. It may be easier for them to intervene with perpetrators
of violence and engage in dialogue with them.
In Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia, the Young Men
Initiative is a violence prevention programme for young men and
boys. Local and international NGOs take part in this initiative.
Its aim is to promote gender equality through campaigns on social
networks and a programme in schools that enables participants to
reflect on male–female relations and the question of masculinity.Note
At the initiative of its Secretary-General, Ban Ki-moon, the
United Nations set up in 2009 a Network of Men Leaders engaged in
combating violence against women.Note
This includes current and former
politicians, civil society activists, religious representatives
and figures from the world of culture who agree to undertake specific
actions to end violence against women, raise public awareness and
meet young men and boys in order to combat violence.
The White Ribbon Campaign was launched by a group of men in
the United Kingdom and appeals directly to men to undertake to combat
violence against women.Note
The campaign website also mentions programmes
for perpetrators and the work of Respect, together with its contact
In France, a “Charter of men against violence against women”,
drawn up by the Ministry of Parity and Professional Equality, was
signed by around thirty male well-known figures (artists, lawyers,
doctors, etc) on 25 November 2003.Note
It states that “violence is incompatible
with a democracy in tune with the times” and that “the fight for
equality between men and women and for human dignity, the fight
for zero violence in our society, is a fight for the modern world”.
I would like to add that Mr Mendes Bota, the Assembly’s general
rapporteur on violence against women, has emphasised on many occasions
the importance of the role of men in combating such violence and
called on men to become involved in prevention activities, whether
it be in their own countries or on the international stage. I also
wish to mention Assembly Resolution
on involving men in achieving gender equality.Note
67 There is a clear upward trend in the number of programmes
for perpetrators of violence in the Council of Europe member States.
They are having a rather positive impact on victim safety and most
of those who participate in these programmes would not reoffend.
68 Preventive intervention programmes and perpetrator treatment
programmes are part of a series of actions aimed at preventing and
combating violence against women and domestic violence and should consequently
be co-ordinated with victim support services and the judicial authorities.
69 A combination of long-term group therapy and individual therapy,
with follow-up over a period of at least two years, makes it possible
to work in detail on the root causes of perpetrators’ outbursts
of violence and for them to learn to control their emotions. The
main aim is to prompt perpetrators to accept that they are responsible
for their own violence and to prevent future violence. Making perpetrators
aware of violence and of their responsibility should be the focus
of any programme.
These programmes have been shown to be fairly successful in
the short termNote
it has not yet been possible to carry out a long-term assessment,
for example 5 to 10 years after the violence occurred.
71 Programmes dealing with the perpetrators of violence can help
to protect victims and bring lasting changes in behaviour. They
cannot, however, replace criminal penalties commensurate with the
seriousness of offences.
72 Nor can there be a substitute for prevention work, such as
awareness campaigns and programmes to deal with gender inequalities,
in which we must continue to invest our energies in order to combat
violence against women effectively.
73 The current economic crisis has serious budgetary consequences
and repercussions on funding for programmes for perpetrators and
programmes to prevent violence against women and domestic violence. Many
organisations that provide preventive intervention programmes and
perpetrator treatment programmes have harshly criticised the lack
of funding in the last few years, so I call on the Council of Europe
member States to keep budget cuts affecting these programmes to
a minimum and ensure that victim support is not adversely affected
by decisions on programme funding.
74 It has been proven that efficient action to combat and prevent
such violence results in long-term savings for State budgets, as
it is far less costly than assistance and support for victims.
75 Programmes for perpetrators of violence should not be a single
solution run in isolation. They are only truly effective if they
are part of an overall campaign to combat violence against women
and domestic violence. The emphasis must be on preventing violence
from a very young age. There will be no real change unless there is
a change in attitudes towards women including measures to combat
gender stereotyping. It is important to address the root causes
of violence perpetrated by men by attempting to understand the nature
of the status of men and women in society and working to bring about
genuine equality between women and men at all levels.