At the end of paragraph 2, replace the words “European Union” with the words “member States of the Council of Europe”.
In paragraph 4, at the end of the second sentence, add the words “as well as ethnic or racist discrimination and violence”.
In paragraph 8.2, after the words “education and work”, add the words “and recognition of educational and professional qualifications”.
After paragraph 8.3, insert the following paragraph:
“ensure that the social rights of refugees and migrants are respected in a gender-neutral way in accordance with the revised European Social Charter (ETS No. 163), in particular regarding parental leave;”
After paragraph 8.4, insert the following paragraph:
“ensure that a right to family reunification is enforced without undue delay, especially for unaccompanied child refugees or family members who are in need of family support;”
At the end of paragraph 8.5, add the words “and violence within their family, including child marriages, genital mutilation and so-called ‘honour killings’”.
In paragraph 8.6, after the word “responsibilities”, add the words “their fundamental rights and freedoms”.
In paragraph 8.8, after the words “vocational training”, add the words “and higher education”.
After paragraph 8.13, add the following paragraph:
“collect and produce detailed gender-specific statistical data on migrants and refugees, in order to define most pressing needs, to detect specific vulnerabilities and strengths and to allow for developing targeted and more individualised national integration policies.”
Within the European Union, the political debate about migration and refugees is often paralysed by polarising focuses on national sovereignty versus European Union competences. As visa issues are national competences within the European Union, it is important to hold States responsible for their action and inaction. In addition, such responsibility should not be limited to the member States of the European Union, but apply to all member States of the Council of Europe.
Gender discrimination and prejudice against migrant and refugee women occurs often through ethnic or even racist discrimination and violence. Therefore, this aspect should also be mentioned in the resolution.
Recognition of studies and diplomas is the objective of the Council of Europe Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications concerning Higher Education in the European Region (ETS No. 165). However, migrants and refugees often face problems in having their studies and diplomas recognised in their host country.
Refugees and migrants, regardless of gender, should enjoy the same social rights, which are often a necessary requirement for integration. Parental leave is an example of a situation where migrant women have faced problems regarding children born abroad.
Family reunification of refugees and migrants is the subject of a separate Assembly report (Doc. 14626). As a key aspect for the integration of refugees and migrants, which often affects mothers separated from their children, this aspect should be mentioned here.
Refugee and migrant women and girls from certain areas face a higher risk of gender-based violence within their family than other women and girls. Integration must therefore also provide particular protection against such violence, which includes even the most severe forms of gender-based violence such as child marriage, genital mutilation and so-called “honour killings”.
Family obligations or societal obligations are neither female nor male, but are shared responsibilities. However, refugees and migrants not only have obligations, they also have rights and freedoms. Therefore, it seems important to add “fundamental rights and freedoms”, as in the European Convention on Human Rights (ETS No. 5).
While vocational training might be important for female refugees and migrants, they must also have access to higher education. Unfortunately, such access to higher education does not exist for women in some countries of origin.
Detailed statistical evidence can be a strong indicator of systemic strengths and vulnerabilities of female and male migrants and refugees, such as data on the number of pregnancies of girl refugees and the number of females and males from abroad who are sexually exploited, but also the number of female and male entrepreneurs among refugees and the cases of public financial support for the latter group. Therefore, it is essential for national authorities to collect and produce detailed statistical data on migrants and refugees, in order to detect specific vulnerabilities and strengths and to develop more individualised national integration policies.