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The funding of public service broadcasting

Report | Doc. 11848 | 19 March 2009

Committee
(Former) Committee on Culture, Science and Education
Rapporteur :
Mr Markku LAUKKANEN, Finland, ALDE
Origin
Reference to committee: Doc. 11328 and Reference No. 3367 of 1 October 2007. 2009 - Third part-session
Thesaurus

Summary

The Assembly reaffirms that public service broadcasting remains essential for meeting the needs of individuals and society as a whole with regard to information, education and culture. National legislators have the power and responsibility to decide on the specific mission, structure and funding of their public service broadcasters, in accordance with national or regional circumstances and requirements.

Public service broadcasters exist in an environment which is marked by the simultaneous offer of a multitude of private channels free of charge, on-demand media services and the rapid increase of audio-visual content accessible on the Internet. In view of changing user demands and decreasing public acceptance, public service broadcasters should be able to utilise new technologies to increase the accessibility of their services and to offer new, additional services, including interactive and on-demand media services.

While funding of public service broadcasting is in the public interest, public service broadcasters must meet quality standards concerning audio-visual content and services. Therefore, public accountability mechanisms for quality control should be established, including evaluations by users.

A Draft recommendation

1. The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe notes that public service broadcasters exist today in an environment which is marked by the simultaneous offer of a multitude of private channels free of charge, on-demand media services and the rapid increase of audio-visual content accessible on the Internet. This increased competition in the audio-visual media sector has led to political debates on the funding of public service broadcasting in Europe.
2. While the establishment and maintenance of broadcasting services was very costly and depended on the scarce infrastructural resource of radio-frequency spectrum, technological progress in the transmission of audio-visual content via cable, satellite and analogue or digital terrestrial means, including fixed and mobile telephony, has changed considerably the environment of audio-visual media.
3. Business models for commercial broadcasters, audio-visual content providers and the audio-visual advertising industry are also changing: advertising revenue is spread out over a wider range of media; pay-per-view broadcasting is challenged by growing thematic content on the Internet; the downloading of music from the Internet might also develop into audio-visual content.
4. Audience behaviour and user demands are changing accordingly, indicating a future trend away from linear broadcasting programmes to thematic channels and interactive or on-demand services using also the Internet as a further platform for providing such services.
5. Public service broadcasters should be an important public source of unbiased information and diverse political opinions; they should function under high editorial standards of objectivity, fairness and independence from party political or economic interference; they should be subject to higher public scrutiny and accountability for their programming than commercial broadcasters; they should contribute decisively to the production of audio-visual works of high quality; they should provide, for the public at large, free access to informal education and culture; they have the possibility and obligation to serve also minority viewers who would not be served in a purely commercial market; they should therefore support non-commercial objectives such as social progress, public interest in democratic processes, intercultural understanding and societal integration. When they fulfil these functions, public service broadcasters constitute an important public value which should not be diminished or abandoned.
6. Recalling its Recommendation 1641 (2004) on public service broadcasting, the Assembly reaffirms that public service broadcasting remains an essential element for member governments in meeting the needs of individuals and society as a whole with regard to information, education and culture. Such needs may be different among states in Europe depending on the national or regional circumstances, including the national or regional media landscape, the cultural diversity of a given society, as well as geographical and infrastructural facts.
7. Therefore, the Assembly strongly supports the commitments made fifteen years ago at the 4th European Ministerial Conference on Mass Media Policy (Prague, 1994) in the Resolution on the future of public service broadcasting, in particular to:
7.1 guarantee at least one comprehensive, wide-range programme service comprising information, education, culture and entertainment, which is accessible to all members of the public, while acknowledging that public service broadcasters must also be permitted to provide, where appropriate, additional programme services such as thematic services;
7.2 define clearly the role, missions and responsibilities of public service broadcasters and to ensure their editorial independence against political and economic interference;
7.3 guarantee public service broadcasters secure and appropriate means necessary for the fulfilment of their missions.
8. The Assembly recalls the further standards on public service media set by its Resolution 1636 (2008) on indicators for media in a democracy, its Recommendation 1855 (2009) on the regulation of audio-visual media services, as well as the Committee of Ministers’ Recommendations No. R (1996) 10 on the guarantee of the independence of public service broadcasting, Rec(2007)3 on the remit of public service media in the information society and Rec(2007)16 on measures to promote the public service value of the Internet, as well as the Committee of Ministers’ Declaration on the guarantee of the independence of public service broadcasting in the member states of 27 September 2006 and its Declaration on the allocation and management of the digital dividend and the public interest of 20 February 2008.
9. As media markets converge further and user demands change, public service broadcasters should diversify their services through thematic channels, on-demand media, recorded media and Internet-based media services, in order to offer a comprehensive and competitive range of media services for the public at large, in accordance with their public service mission. Technological progress in the field of audio-visual media and electronic communications requires from public service broadcasters to make use of new technologies.
10. Representing national parliaments in Europe, the Assembly emphasises the power and responsibility of national legislators to decide on the specific mission, structure and funding of their public service broadcasters, in accordance with national or regional circumstances and requirements. The Assembly notes tendencies within the European Union to restrict those national powers under internal market regulations and a growing number of complaints brought against EU member states on the grounds that they were funding services which were considered to be outside the scope of public service broadcasters.
11. The Assembly recalls the Amsterdam Protocol to the Treaty establishing the European Union of 1997 and the Unesco Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions of 2005. The latter recognises that, within the framework of its cultural policies and measures and taking into account its own particular circumstances and needs, each party to that convention may adopt measures aimed at protecting and promoting the diversity of cultural expressions within its territory, in particular measures aimed at providing public financial assistance and enhancing diversity of the media, including through public service broadcasting (Article 6, paragraphs 2 (d) and 2 (h) of the convention).
12. Member states have developed different rules for the funding of their public service broadcasters in accordance with their national traditions and circumstances. Smaller countries, countries with several languages and countries with a smaller pluralism of commercial broadcasters may need a specific funding of their public service broadcasting. However, public acceptance to fund public service broadcasting is decreasing.
13. The funding of public service media may be ensured, through a flat broadcasting licence fee, a tax, state subsidies, subscription fees, advertising and sponsoring revenue, specialised pay-per-view or on-demand services, the sale of related products such as books, videos or films, and the exploitation of their audio-visual archives. In this regard, public service media may have a mixed funding, similar to other public cultural institutions, such as orchestras, theatres or museums. Each of these forms of funding must enable public service broadcasters to meet the public service requirement of accessibility and affordability for the public at large. However, state-owned public service broadcasters should avoid competing and thus distorting commercial markets.
14. While funding of public service broadcasting is in the public interest, public service broadcasters must meet quality standards concerning audio-visual content and services. This requires that legislators and regulatory bodies define the public service mission, as well as general policy guidelines for such quality standards, but leave daily editorial and managerial independence to public service broadcasters. Therefore, public accountability mechanisms for quality control should be established, including evaluations by users. However, audience share should not be a decisive factor.
15. The Assembly notes with interest the discussions currently held in national parliaments on the mission and funding of their public service broadcasters and calls on all member parliaments to:
15.1 ensure that their public service broadcasters have a clear mission and adequate long-term funding possibilities for fulfilling this mission, in accordance with the Resolution on the future of public service broadcasting of the 4th European Ministerial Conference on Mass Media Policy (Prague, 1994);
15.2 ensure a sustainable structure of their public service broadcasters, which provides for adequate safeguards for their editorial and managerial independence, in accordance with the Committee of Ministers’ Recommendation No. R (1996) 10 on the guarantee of the independence of public service broadcasting;
15.3 ensure accountability of public service broadcasters, including regular reviews of their public service mission and their meeting public service objectives and user demands;
15.4 ensure the allocation of adequate radio-frequency spectrum for public service broadcasters during the digital switch-over and after analogue radio-frequencies will have been switched off, in accordance with the Committee of Ministers’ Declaration of 20 February 2008 on the allocation and management of the digital dividend and the public interest;
15.5 analyse possibilities for commercial media to fulfil public service missions, for instance by providing specific audio-visual works, programmes, channels or services, and thus to receive public financial support.
16. The Assembly invites the ministers participating in the Council of Europe’s Ministerial Conference on the Media and New Communication Services (Reykjavik, May 2009) to reaffirm:
16.1 the importance of public service media responding to their national or regional requirements through a clear mission, a sustainable structure and adequate long-term funding determined at national level;
16.2 that public service broadcasters should, in accordance with changing user demands, utilise new technologies to increase the accessibility of their services and offer new, additional services including interactive and on-demand media services;
16.3 the importance of co-ordinating, Europe-wide, their national policies for public service broadcasting through regular ministerial meetings at the level of the Council of Europe, as well as its Steering Committee on the Media and New Communication Services.
17. The Assembly recommends that the Committee of Ministers:
17.1 forward this recommendation to competent ministries, regulatory bodies for broadcasting and public service broadcasters in their country;
17.2 ask the European Audiovisual Observatory to collect information about the funding of public service media in Europe;
17.3 analyse, together with the European Broadcasting Union, possibilities for cross-border co-operation of national public service broadcasters, for example in the joint production of audio-visual works and programmes, the joint use of archives, technical equipment and human resources, as well as the joint acquisition of transmission rights.

B Explanatory memorandum by Mr Laukkanen

1 Introduction

1. In accordance with the decisions of the 4th European Ministerial Conference on Mass Media Policy (Prague, 1994), public service broadcasters shall: 1. provide through their programming a reference point for all members of the public and a factor for social cohesion and integration of all individuals, groups and communities; 2. provide a forum for public discussion in which as broad a spectrum of views and opinions as possible can be expressed; 3. broadcast impartial and independent news, information and comment; 4. develop pluralistic, innovatory and varied programming which meets high ethical and quality standards and not sacrifice the pursuit of quality to market forces; 5. develop and structure programme schedules and services of interest to a wide public, while being attentive to the needs of minority groups; 6. reflect the different philosophical ideas and religious beliefs in society, with the aim of strengthening mutual understanding and tolerance and promoting community relations in pluri-ethnic and multicultural societies; 7. contribute actively through their programming to a greater appreciation and dissemination of the diversity of national and European cultural heritage; 8. ensure that programmes offered contain a significant proportion of original productions; and 9. extend the choice available to viewers and listeners by also offering programme services which are not normally provided by commercial broadcasters.
2. Public service broadcasting must not be confused with state broadcasting, which is the operation of a broadcaster by the state or by an entity under direct state control, but without any public scrutiny or accountability. Public service broadcasting is broadcasting for the public at large, that is to say, a service for the public meeting the above requirements. Therefore, private or commercial broadcasters can also be organised as a public service broadcaster or fulfil public service missions.
3. Technological evolution and the convergence of media and communications markets pose new challenges to public service broadcasting. Member states have to adapt public service broadcasting to meet those challenges. In this context, financing of public service broadcasting is a key element. It is the objective of this report to make policy recommendations to member states in this respect.
4. The Sub-Committee on the Media of the Committee on Culture, Science and Education held a hearing on this subject in Paris on 17 November 2008. This report takes account of the valuable contributions made by the participants: Mr Alain Belais, France Télévisions, Paris; Mr Jacques Briquemont, European Broadcasting Union, Brussels; Mr Irfan Erenturk, Turkish Radio and Television Supreme Council, Ankara; Mr Maxim Hauk, Association of Commercial Television in Europe, Brussels; Ms Sophie Jones, Channel 4, London; Mr Ismo Silvo, Finnish Broadcasting Company Yle, Helsinki; and Ms Catherine Smadja, BBC, London.

2 Public service broadcasting standards of the Council of Europe

5. The Council of Europe has supported public service broadcasting and defined European policies in this respect for many years. The ministers participating in the 1st European Ministerial Conference on Mass Media Policy (Vienna, 1986) adopted, for the first time, in their Resolution No. 2 on public and private broadcasting in Europe the commitments to “maintain the principle of public service broadcasting, acknowledging that this function may be fulfilled by publicly or privately organised entities”, as well as to “secure the funding of public service broadcasting”.
6. In the resolution adopted on the future of public service broadcasting, the 4th European Ministerial Conference on Mass Media Policy undertook three fundamental commitments: 1. “to guarantee at least one comprehensive wide-range programme service comprising information, education, culture and entertainment which is accessible to all members of the public, while acknowledging that public service broadcasters must also be permitted to provide, where appropriate, additional programme services such as thematic services”; 2. “to define clearly … the role, missions and responsibilities of public service broadcasters and to ensure their editorial independence against political and economic interference”; and 3. “to guarantee public service broadcasters secure and appropriate means necessary for the fulfilment of their missions”.
7. The Assembly referred to public service broadcasting in its Recommendation 1641 (2004) on public service broadcasting, by pointing to the financial, commercial and technological challenges to be faced by public service broadcasters, as well as in its Resolution 1636 (2008) on indicators for media in a democracy and in its Recommendation 1855 (2009) on the regulation of audio-visual media services.
8. The Committee of Ministers recently adopted recommendations Rec(2007)16 on measures to promote the public service value of the Internet, as well as Rec(2007)3 on the remit of public service media in the information society. On 27 September 2006, the Committee of Ministers adopted the Declaration on the Guarantee of the Independence of Public Service Broadcasting in the Member States. A decade earlier, the Committee of Ministers had adopted Recommendation No. R (1996) 10 on the guarantee of the independence of public service broadcasting.

3 Public service broadcasting within the European Union

9. The Amsterdam Protocol, which was appended to the Treaty establishing the European Union of 1997, states that “the system of public broadcasting in the member states is directly related to the democratic, social and cultural needs of each society and to the need to preserve media pluralism. … The provisions of the Treaty establishing the European Community shall be without prejudice to the competence of member states to provide for the funding of public service broadcasting insofar as such funding is granted to broadcasting organisations for the fulfilment of the public service remit as conferred, defined and organised by each member state, and insofar as such funding does not affect trading conditions and competition in the Community to an extent which would be contrary to the common interest, while the realisation of the remit of that public service shall be taken into account” (Official Journal of the European Communities C 340/109).
10. The starting point in broadcasting is at the national level and relates to the member states’ own national needs rather than European ones. Public service broadcasting is a national question, because every member state has its own cultural, political and social heritage. The European Commission has launched a growing number of complaints against EU member states on the grounds that they were funding services which were considered to be outside the scope of public service broadcasters. If, on the one hand, EU member states are entitled to fund public service broadcasters, on the other hand they should refrain from funding activities which fall outside the remit of public service broadcasters.

4 Public service broadcasting standards at international level

11. Public service broadcasting responds to social, democratic and cultural needs. Article 6, paragraphs 2.d and 2.h of the Unesco Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions of 2005 recognises that, within the framework of its cultural policies and measures, and taking into account its own particular circumstances and needs, each party to that convention may adopt measures aimed at protecting and promoting the diversity of cultural expressions within its territory, in particular measures aimed at providing public financial assistance and enhancing diversity of the media, including through public service broadcasting.

5 Objectives of public service broadcasting

12. Public service broadcasting also ensures media pluralism in times of increasing competition among electronic media and concentration in the sector, as well as the commercialisation and homogenisation of the programmes being offered. Public service broadcasting must observe the principle of freedom of expression, under which public authorities refrain from engaging in mass media and try to interfere as little as possible in questions of programming and content.
13. Public service broadcasting is defined through general principles. A more precise organisation of public service and the definition of its remit are left to national authorities and the content of broadcasting programmes is left to public service broadcasters, which can – through self-regulation – play a role in regulating and defining broadcasting.
14. The key principles of public service broadcasting are that it is national in character, diverse, independent, impartial and balanced and that it serves national interests. The member states of the Council of Europe have the opportunity to regulate public service broadcasting as changes in the operating environment require and to take national needs into account in the definition of public service broadcasting.
15. In its 1986 report, the Peacock Committee, which studied the financing of the public service broadcaster the BBC in the United Kingdom, set forth eight basic principles that should be observed in public service broadcasting: geographic universality; catering for all interests and tastes; catering for minorities; concern for national identity and community; detachment from vested interests and government; direct funding of at least one broadcasting system by all users; competition in good programming rather than for numbers of viewers; and having guidelines which liberate rather than restrict programme makers. These principles still apply.
16. Definitions of public service broadcasting may be crystallised into three principles that reflect the most essential character of public service: diversity, geographic universality and impartiality. The same concepts have been used to define public service broadcasting in many connections, but with slightly different emphases. Such public service broadcasting principles as freedom of speech and democracy, as well as cultural and language diversity, feature in the positions adopted by the Council of Europe and the European Union.
17. Public service broadcasting is regarded as presupposing a high-quality service, which is equitably available to all at a moderate price, which is available everywhere in the country and which is of uniform technical quality. This requires a regular review of whether public service broadcasters fulfil their mission. Public service broadcasters therefore function under higher levels of public accountability and scrutiny.
18. Obligations that are emphasised in the remit of public service broadcasting are an obligation to cater for democratic needs, to take care of social relationships, to offer freedom of cultural expression and to ensure media plurality. Public service broadcasting is of great importance for the quality of media content, social identity and a nation’s collective experience.
19. The objectives usually set for public utility services have been taken into account in the definition of public service broadcasting. Although the arrangement and content of public utility services vary from one member state to another, there are obligations that all member states have in common, such as geographic universality of the availability of services, continuity, moderate cost, quality and consumer protection. In particular, the same-price principle is essential to a public service broadcasting model that is founded on a system of licensing fees. The public service obligation has been definitively linked to the equality of citizens and to reducing social differences.
20. Digitalisation of electronic media, technological convergence and the growth of the media economy have all increased pressures on public service broadcasting. The Council of Europe considers it important that the prerequisites for the successful operation of public service broadcasting, its organisation, financing and broad definition should continue to be safeguarded.
21. A public service mission has to ensure services in favour of national culture, cultural diversity, minority language groups and other minorities, particularly when such services are not economically viable.
22. Technological convergence has led to the same content being disseminated in the digital operating environment in many sectors and in many forms, through all distribution routes, and has also led to it being received with the aid of several kinds of devices. In a digital environment, public service broadcasting is also encountering a change in content provision from a unidirectional mass communication information service to a bi-directional dual communication and information service. Public service broadcasting is of major importance as a key implementer of information society policy.
23. Public service broadcasting must be active in using new technology and must also produce and distribute programmes via new routes and to new receiving devices. Public service broadcasting that is linked to information society policies can be recognised as an opportunity for using interactive television, broadband distribution, new personal digital wireless receiving devices, high-definition receivers, digital sound and multimedia, as well as digital pay-card management systems.
24. Public service broadcasting needs the support of its audiences and a new kind of partnership with the public in order to be able to preserve its status as a producer of cultural and societal expressions in a commercial and competitive digital media market. The success of public service broadcasting will be evaluated in the light of the identities offered by its programmes, how they promote civic discourse and how they are able to meet knowledge-related, social and cultural needs. Even in an era of marketed media, the social responsibility and cultural-moral remit of public service broadcasting have not gone away.
25. The number of channels available via satellites and the Internet is growing; technological convergence is producing new content, new distribution routes and new receiving devices. Commercial media are the locomotive of growth for the development of new media and their new products and applications. Public service broadcasting has responded to the challenge by adopting a market-oriented approach and by making its programming more and more commercial in character. Rather than being market-oriented, public service broadcasting should renew its citizen-oriented approach and distinguish itself from commercial media through quality. Indeed, public service broadcasting needs a new kind of commitment to quality. Rather than mimicking commercial competitors, public service broadcasters should increase their audiences’ interest by evolving in a more citizen-interactive direction, with the aid of radio and television programmes that are closer to people.

6 Means of financing public service broadcasting

26. Over time, countries have developed different traditions for financing their national public service broadcasters. There is no need for these historic developments to be harmonised at European level and it would serve no purpose. Therefore, the financing of public service broadcasting should not be regulated through a binding legal instrument other than one at national level.
27. In addition, public service broadcasting flows from the public interest in access for all to media and information, which can be based on the Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ETS. No. 5). Therefore, public service broadcasting should be dealt with within the remit and the wider European context of the Council of Europe.
28. The most widely used method for financing public service broadcasting is through a licence fee. This fee is typically a flat tax charged by the state to all residents possessing a radio or television set. Alternatively, a progressive tax can also be charged, as is the case in Greece and Turkey, for example, in the tax on the electricity bills of households. There may also be direct subsidies.
29. The growing digitisation of radio and audio-visual media is leading to a growing convergence of computer-based telecommunications services and broadcasting. Public acceptance to pay the licence fee is decreasing, in particular because a growing number of people who possess a computer with loudspeakers and a screen can access television services. This may become a challenge for public service broadcasting.

7 Financing of commercial broadcasting services

30. Commercial broadcasters mainly finance themselves through advertising. This may be complemented by selling acquired film and transmission rights to other broadcasters, and the transmission rights of major sports events, for example, may reach enormous sums.
31. Some commercial broadcasters charge their viewers subscription fees for the installation of a satellite or cable decoder, either per channel or on a pay-per-view basis, that is to say, for each film viewed.

8 Alternative means of financing for public service broadcasters

32. Public service broadcasters may be excluded from commercial activities under national legislation. Advertising revenue is generally possible, but some states have decided against this in order to avoid competing in a commercial market. Limited commercial activities are sometimes permitted, such as the sale of books and videos related to films shown on television, or the sale of transmission rights. But public service broadcasters might also be able to “sell” thematic channels, pay-per-view films or other specialised media services on a commercial basis to viewers or users.
33. Public service broadcasters often have a high reputation for their in-house training of journalists, cameramen and other media professionals. One could therefore imagine that other broadcasters send their media professionals to public service broadcasters for training, on a commercial basis.
34. The state should not, however, compete with players in the commercial market. Since public service broadcasters are mostly state-owned and state-financed entities, their participation in commercial markets may distort those markets. States have an interest in a functioning commercial media industry. Nevertheless, because they are profit-driven, commercial media services will not satisfy all society’s demands for information and media. In many countries, the commercial media markets may also be limited by media concentration and the market dominance of a few, powerful commercial media companies.

9 Public service missions by commercial broadcasters

35. The funding of public service broadcasting may go beyond the financing of public service broadcasters. Some states may also decide to let commercial broadcasters fulfil public service missions. Such broadcasters would thus qualify for public funding of such services.

10 Amount of money necessary for fulfilling the public service remit

36. The amount of money necessary for fulfilling the remit of public service broadcasting varies according to national circumstances. National legislators are in a better position to calculate the exact level of budget that their national public service broadcasters should have at their disposal. At European level, we cannot attempt to discuss concrete figures for national cases. Nevertheless, this wide remit requires a high and secure level of funding.
37. Technological developments have an impact on the required budgets. Public service broadcasters may need additional funds for investing in new technologies, while at the same time, new technologies may reduce operation costs and enlarge the access for viewers and listeners.

11 New means of funding public service broadcasting

38. Although public service broadcasters and commercial broadcasters are often in direct competition, both sides might develop synergies through co-operation. State-owned and funded public service broadcasters might reduce the costs necessary for fulfilling their remit by co-operating with private broadcasters, especially in those areas which can be dealt with commercially.
39. Traditionally, public service broadcasters provide their services through radio and television. The growing digitalisation and convergence of media platforms compels broadcasters to take advantage of this, by offering part of their services via the Internet, for example.
40. In addition, the fulfilment of the public service remit may benefit from further media diversification, for instance by offering print media, books, digitally recorded content (on DVD, CD, etc.) and mobile information services (through mobile telephones and other mobile receivers).
41. Public service broadcasters might also be able to reduce their costs by co-operating with public service broadcasters in other countries. Commercial broadcasters typically operate at a multinational level, while public service broadcasters are, as yet, generally confined to their national territories. Costly programmes, such as the transmission of major sports events, are often of international relevance and interesting for an international audience. The dubbing of films and other productions would be less costly than parallel productions.
42. These are just a few examples of new means of generating additional resources or making cost savings. They may require legislative changes at the national level.

12 Conclusion

43. National parliaments and ministers responsible for media policy should adapt the funding of public service broadcasting in their countries to the new audio-visual media environment, while safeguarding the public service mission and structure of their broadcasters and allowing them to make full use of the technological opportunities for the benefit of the public at large.

__________

Reporting committee: Committee on Culture, Science and Education.

Reference to committee: Doc. 11328 and Reference No. 3367 of 1 October 2007.

Draft recommendation unanimously adopted by the committee on 10 March 2009.

Members of the committee: Mrs Anne Brasseur, (Chairperson), Mr Detlef Dzembritzki (1st Vice-Chairperson), Mr Mehmet Tekelioğlu (2nd Vice-Chairperson), Mrs Miroslava Němcová, (3rd Vice-Chairperson) Mr Vicenç Alay Ferrer, Mrs Aneliya Atanasova, Mr Lokman Ayva, Mr Rony Bargetze, Mr Walter Bartoš, Mr Radu Mircea Berceanu, Mrs Deborah Bergamini, Mrs Oksana Bilozir (alternate: Mrs Olha Herasym’yuk), Mrs Guðfinna S. Bjarnadóttir, Mrs Rossana Boldi, Mr Ivan Brajović, Mr Miklós Csapody, Mr Vlad Cubreacov, Mrs Lena Dąbkowska-Cichocka, Mr Joseph Debono Grech, Mr Ferdinand Devínsky, Mr Daniel Ducarme, Ms Åse Gunhild Woie Duesund, Mrs Anke Eymer, Mr Gianni Farina, Mr Relu Fenechiu, Mrs Blanca Fernández-Capel Baños, Mr Axel Fischer, Mr Gvozden Srećko Flego, Mr Dario Franceschini, Mr José Freire Antunes, Mrs Gisèle Gautier, Mr Ioannis Giannellis-Theodosiadis, Mr Martin Graf, Mr Oliver Heald, Mr Raffi Hovannisian, Mr Rafael Huseynov, Mr Fazail İbrahimli, Mr Mogens Jensen, Mr Morgan Johansson, Mrs Francine John-Calame (alternate: Mrs Doris Fiala), Ms Flora Kadriu, Mrs Liana Kanelli, Mr Jan Kaźmierczak, Miss Cecilia Keaveney, Mrs Svetlana Khorkina (alternate: Mr Igor Chernyshenko), Mr Serhii Kivalov, Mr Anatoliy Korobeynikov, Ms Elvira Kovács, Mr József Kozma, Mr Jean-Pierre Kucheida, Mr Ertuğrul Kumcuoğlu, Ms Dalia Kuodytė, Mr Markku Laukkanen, Mr René van der Linden, Mrs Milica Marković, Mrs Muriel Marland-Militello, Mr Andrew McIntosh, Mrs Maria Manuela De Melo, Mrs Assunta Meloni, Mr Paskal Milo, Ms Christine Muttonen, Mr Edward O’Hara, Mr Kent Olsson, Mr Andrey Pantev, Mrs Antigoni Papadopoulos, Mrs Majda Potrata, Mrs Adoración Quesada Bravo (alternate: Mr Gabino Puche Rodriguez-Acosta), Mr Frédéric Reiss, Mrs Mailis Reps, Mr Paul Rowen, Mrs Anta Rugāte, Mrs Ana Sánchez Hernández, Mr Yury Solonin, Mr Christophe Steiner, Mrs Doris Stump, Mr Valeriy Sudarenkov, Mr Petro Symonenko, Mr Guiorgui Targamadzé, Mr Hugo Vandenberghe, Mr Klaas De Vries, Mr Piotr Wach, Mr Wolfgang Wodarg.

NB: The names of the members present at the meeting are printed in bold.

Secretariat of the committee: Mr Ary, Mr Dossow.