B Explanatory memorandum by Mrs Muttonen,
Having initiated the motion on this subject and been
appointed rapporteur of the Committee on Culture, Science and Education,
I wish to express my gratitude to Professor Barbara Putz-Plecko
from the University of Applied Arts in Vienna, who has prepared
the background reportNoteNote
and participated in an exchange of views with the committee. I am
also grateful for the lively discussions held at several committee
meetings and the useful contributions by committee members.
2. As stated by Simon Rattle, "In matters of education, it is
becoming very clear that society is changing: We no longer need
the model that assumes there are a thousand obedient worker bees
for each queen bee. Everyone in the industrial sector tells me we
are educating our young people for the demands of today. We don’t
need people who think in straight lines. We need people who can
see the wider picture; we need people who can make connections,
unexpected connections. This is the area in which the arts are supreme,
in which art and education can give more, in every respect, than
any other discipline.”
3. Education must take into account social challenges. Our world
is characterised by rapid change, increasing globalisation and increasingly
complex economic, societal and cultural relations.Information, education and knowledge
are progressively becoming the driving forces behind our new social
and economic structures. The qualifications and competences of our
citizens are thus becoming our central “raw material” and, as such,
crucial factors of international competition. They are the key to
every country’s future.
4. The Austrian Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Art
recognised that “If we are to meet these tremendous challenges with
foresight and a sense of proportion, we need a suitable educational
foundation that will set the necessary orientation benchmarks in
this rapidly changing world and enable us to deal with it in a constructive
and critical way”.
5. In order to adequately prepare children and young people for
vocational and social life, educational institutions must not only
understand changes in needs but anticipate them. In this sense,
art and culture are indispensable elements of a comprehensive education,
the objective of which is to achieve the maximum benefit for, and
best possible development of, each and every individual and thus
enable every individual to participate actively in society as a
constructive member of the community.
6. The ability to capably handle the challenges encountered by
each individual and by society, the capacity to deal responsibly
with resources and the environment, well-developed interpersonal
and communication skills and a well developed faculty of reflection,
as well as the ability to learn, to make decisions and to act competently
– all these are educational goals which, when achieved, contribute
substantially to a satisfying life.
2 The arts and cultural education
7. In this context, experience with the arts facilitates
learning processes that are of pivotal importance: for example,
recognising and relating to what is different, or the capacity to
develop transitions and interrelations within a heterogeneous group.
8. Like science, art can contribute to an overall process of
development in society as a result of its view of the world and
its approach to creativity. Moreover, cultural education creates
a constructive basis for encounter and discussion, for coexistence
and co-operation.It is a
foundation of general education, not a luxury that may be added
when all other educational goals have been achieved.
9. The function of schools in society is not only to give our
children knowledge and skills, but to open up spheres of experience
and development in which young people can get to know themselves
and become familiar with the world, and which will comprehensively
foster the development of their personalities.
10. “Education in the arts” and education “through the arts” open
up access to a more widely defined cultural education and are an
essential part of it at the same time. According to the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights, the aim of education must be to promote
the full development of the personality, talents, and mental and
physical capabilities of each individual child.
11. Cultural education, that is, education in the arts and education
through the arts (which means the use of art-based forms of teaching
as a pedagogic tool in all kinds of school subjects), as examined
by Anne Bamford in her systematised and comparative global review
written for UNESCO, entitled The WOW
Factor, makes an important contribution to the achievement
of this aim. It is, in effect, a motor of individual development.
12. Increasingly, parents are coming to recognise this. In Austria,
at least, the most recent cultural monitoring study carried out
by the Institute for Empirical Social Research (Ifes, Institut für
Empirische Sozialforschung) showed that parents would like to see
more art and culture in schools because they believe that cultural
education plays an extremely important role in the comprehensive
development of their children’s personalities. Just recently, the
Nordic Council also identified cultural education as an area that
needs to be more intensively focussed on by schools in the coming
years and correspondingly expanded and developed.
13. Artistic processes relate to the world “differently”. Learning
is a creative process. What we learn depends, for the most part,
on how we learn: on the learning place and learning atmosphere,
the time, the rhythm and the clearness of presentation. Learning
by means of art-based methods opens up specific spheres of experience
and development – an easily recognisable fact that has been examined
and described in numerous studies. This form of learning is distinguished
by the particular vividness and clarity with which knowledge and
ideas can be communicated. And it promotes a positive understanding
of diversity, of different approaches and of multi-perspective ways
of viewing things – for example, by directly conveying the insight that
there is more than one reasonable answer and more than one solution
to a problem.
14. Not only demographic changes – which schools are now having
to deal with constructively – have made it clear that a homogeneous
culture for all simply does not exist, and that, more than ever
before, we are being called upon to take this into account. An approach
based on rational, visual and emotional skills lets children discover
new worlds and come to grips with them in playful ways.
15. The essential elements are: perception and creativity, the
enjoyment and adventure of seeing and hearing, of trying things
out, of simulating, playfully transforming, and achieving new effects
under controlled guidance – and, of course, time and again, invention.
It is a matter of providing an indispensable and different access
to the outer and inner worlds (apart from the cognitive approach
through technologies and media). It is a proven fact that we need
experiences of all the senses in order to develop: neuro-scientific
research demonstrates how thinking is stimulated by the senses and
that creativity requires neuro-plasticity.
16. Literacy — as an educational goal and key area of competence
— must be more than language as a verbal means of expression and
communication. Creative design takes place in many “languages”.
Schools must provide the time and space for this development of
linguistic and non-linguistic forms of expression. Experimental
situations must be permitted or created that will allow young people
to make discoveries and develop new things or new modes of performance
– in their own language, in their own individual ways, in their own
personal forms of expression.
17. Artistic processes are always search processes that involve
a seeking of individual paths, and at the same time they are processes
of creative thinking. They bring new understanding of oneself in
combination with greater understanding of and new connections with
the world. And they produce insight and knowledge in a special way.
18. Aesthetic education, education in the arts, is distinguished
by a specific interaction of cognition and emotion. We know that
people who do not learn to deal with emotional intelligence run
the risk of developing large deficits in perception, in decision-making
ability and in the capacity to cope with everyday life and social situations.
3 Cultural education implemented
19. Surprisingly, very little is being done to put these
insights into practise. A great number of good intentions are being
expressed, but very few political measures are being taken that
could facilitate and promote a paradigm shift. Increased effort
has to be made to establish synergies between knowledge, skills
and creativity. With few exceptions educational politics gets no
further than paying lip service to these ideas.
20. Time cuts and the setting of other educational focuses are
reducing the scope of these areas of education in many European
countries to such an extent that the potential of children and young
people often remains disregarded. The result is that, on the one
hand, young people’s chances for development are lost at an early
age and, on the other hand, their potential remains untapped for
society as a whole – even though society’s need for precisely the
competences and qualities that are developed through artistic and
cultural education is greater than ever.
These important competences and qualities are:
- the faculty of discriminative
observation and perception,
- imagination, inventiveness and vision,
- creativity as their practical application,
- emotional intelligence,
- individual capabilities of expression and language competence,
- the ability to communicate,
- the ability to efficiently select and evaluate information,
- the understanding of relations and correlations,
- a capacity for critical reflection,
- the ability to relate thinking and action in creative
as well as organisational processes and to use knowledge in accordance
with specific requirements,
- the capacity to make decisions independently,
- the ability to implement ideas innovatively and
- the capacity to create new interconnections.
22. Creativity and the ability to innovate are decisive for sustainable
economic and social development. At present we are at the end of
the industrial age. The abilities and skills that were needed to
safeguard the social order of industrial society are losing relevance.
The modern working world is no longer primarily defined by demand,
but rather by perpetual renewal and innovation. One of the most
essential competences needed in the future will be the ability to
decide, for the most part independently and unrelated to predefined
work processes, which possible solution to a new problem is the
23. Knowledge and creativity are the new economic factors. It
is not raw materials and machines, capital and land, analysts say
that will be the driving forces of our economy in the future. The
deciding factor in the success of countries and regions will be
the competition for creative and innovative minds.
24. “Creative education,” summarises Monika Kircher-Kohl, CEO
and CFO of Infineon Technologies Austria, “is a precondition for
innovative industry. Cultural education is the basis for people’s
ability to work together productively with understanding and respect
in teams and global organisations. Artistic education ensures that young
people will find the courage to cross boundaries and thereby develop
their personalities – not only their intellectual talents – to the
full: Education in the sense of a democratic society is inextricably
linked with these attributes!”
25. In this respect, adequate attention must be focussed on the
multifaceted potential of young people, and conditions must be provided
that allow this potential its full development. Unfortunately, up
to now the promised paradigm shift has been reflected in the education
system to only a very limited extent, or has been responded to merely
with tightly structured “creative training” sessions.
26. The European Union has recognised the importance of creativity
for economic and social success through its “European Year of Creativity
and Innovation 2009”. While there is no specific budget earmarked
for this initiative, existing programmes shall be used to support
events under this motto.
27. Creativity – the ability to create something new – needs to
be allowed to grow and develop in its own way and in its own time;
it needs patience and faith. Creativity cannot be measured or produced
according to scale. It cannot be categorised. It lives on freedom,
not commands. However, the systems we have now are enormous categorisation
and compartmentalisation machines, which oppose behaviour that diverges
from the norm. Creativity requires self-organised people and tolerant,
open communities. This is what cultural education aims for.
28. Inadequate and bad teaching is a hindrance. However, the clear
hierarchy of school subjects, exacerbated by the OECD instrument
of the PISA Study (at present, primary importance is given to the
subjects that PISA tests) and coinciding, perhaps, with a prevailing
mood of short-sighted utilitarianism in society, is not conducive
to achieving this aim. This societal tendency to see and value only
direct usefulness does not recognise larger interrelationships and
does not look far enough ahead. Yet we know that the problems we
face in the future can only be solved if, in addition to using rational
approaches, we cultivate forms of communication that are capable
of making complicated and complex situations perceptible and comprehensible.
Only then can action be guided by knowledge.
29. Artistic languages make an important contribution to the development
of these kinds of communication. But because of their mainly peripheral
position in most education systems, or due to qualitatively inadequate teaching,
not only are specific forms of intelligence and understanding not
fostered, the very opposite is the case; they are actually obstructed.
30. Teachers play a decisive role in awakening and encouraging
creative potential. They provide examples in the way they teach
and through their personality. This is why teacher training is so
important. Teachers must be capable of capturing their pupils’ interest
and fostering their abilities in the sense described above and thus of
presenting lessons clearly and competently enough to achieve these
goals. At the same time, they must be interested in an interdisciplinary
approach and have the corresponding capacity to work co-operatively.
31. As a matter of fact, a large percentage of teachers are in
favour of artistic and cultural activities and a number of them
engage in such activities with commitment, which results in lasting
positive effects for everyone involved. At the same time, there
is an obvious disproportion between the personal commitment required
on the part of the teachers and the small amount of institutional
support they receive in a system where openness for such activities
is lacking. Too often, teachers have to battle all kinds of structural
resistance before they can carry out their activities. Teachers
and teacher unions should become active and be supported in this
32. Art and educational institutions have an educational mandate.
A new learning culture has to be promoted by enabling new learning
communities and supporting networks. Cultural institutions, too,
need to rethink their roles in connection with cultural education;
generally, the production, presentation and preservation of the cultural
heritage are placed in the foreground while education takes a back
33. In this respect, great differences are observable among the
various countries of Europe. As far as mandates and measures relating
to cultural and educational policy are concerned, a number of cultural institutions
offer cultural education programmes which are also school-oriented.
These vary from country to country. The fact is that for some time
now, these institutions have been no longer measured by their artistic production
alone, but also by their ability to attract an interested and informed
public and to fulfil their educational function. Increasingly, this
is leading to intensified contact between these “educational partners” and,
at least in some European countries, to helpful accompanying structural
34. Moreover, some cultural institutions explicitly assume the
cultural and political mission of reaching socially disadvantaged
and educationally underprivileged target groups, as well as of generally
facilitating cultural participation of young people.
35. Aesthetic education thus leads, as it were, to the heart of
cultural education. The important thing is to provide a cognitive
approach and a playful exposure to art and culture. Other essential
elements are thought, communication and integrative processes. An
unfocussed use of terminology can lead to misunderstandings and
36. While artistic education starts with the subject, cultural
education is a dialogue which focuses on the way people deal with
their fellow human beings and with the environment. It contributes
to people’s socialisation and strengthens their ability to participate
actively in the life of society – at various levels and in a variety
4 Cultural education as a holistic notion
37. Cultural education has been on the European agenda
for a number of years. It is not the particular concern of a few
idealists interested in art and culture. It is a professional sphere
of action in which teachers, cultural educators and artists work.
38. Their goal is to develop cultural competence – which is considered
by the European Union to be one of the key competences of the 21st
century. Cultural competence develops and expands in the course
of long-term learning processes if these are allowed to proceed
at individual speeds. It evolves to the best advantage in a lifelong
and life-accompanying educational process.
39. It is in this respect that obstacles and questions arise:
in a globalised society characterised by competition and pressure
to perform, where do we find space and time for imagination, individuality
and creativity, unoccupied zones for open, curious encounters, for
constructively dealing with contradictions, for solidarity?
40. If we think about cultural competence and try to determine
what it really is, we also have to reflect on what precisely is
meant by culture. There are a number of definitions, some of them
similar to one another and others contradictory, and they all can
influence the approach taken with respect to necessary cultural
41. Let us single out those which exemplify the various positions
and enable us to recognise the conflicting perspectives: Raymond
Williams defines culture “as a whole way of life”, thus offering
the leitmotif of Anglo-American
cultural studies, which dissolves the boundary between everyday
culture and high culture and thereby significantly influences the
42. Another broad definition is the definition of culture used
by UNESCO. It describes culture as “the whole complex of distinctive
spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features that characterise
a society or social group” (including modes of life, value systems,
religious and other beliefs and traditions).
43. The British “All Our Futures” report, which introduces the
Creative Partnerships programme, describes culture as shared values
and patterns of behaviour that characterise various social groupings
and communities. Behind this is a multicultural and multi-ethnic
society in which cultural diversity is understood as a central idea
of social and cultural policy.
44. In Western Europe, particularly in the German-speaking countries,
culture has up to now been seen as a tradition within the context
of the history of ideas, a tradition which follows the ideal of
the “cultivated person” held by educated middle-class intellectuals
since the 18th century. In this context, high culture is considered an
educational treasure, to which everyday culture and popular culture
are seen, at times, in alarming contrast.
45. Traditional, outdated cultural concepts have for some time
been dissipating in the wake of a plurality of lifestyles that no
longer submits to any binding canon of high art as a matter of course.
To this extent, an up-to-date concept of cultural education is based
on the assumption that there are areas of interaction at the interfaces
of everyday culture and so-called high culture.
5 Intercultural education as part of cultural education
46. The ability to enter into intercultural dialogue
and trans-cultural understanding will decide our future. When we
speak of culture and education today, we have to take into account
global migrations, worldwide communication networks, international
business groups and the problem of poverty, which concerns all societies.
47. Europe, both as a cultural area and as an economic area, needs
qualified citizens with intercultural competence, interest in linguistic
diversity, the willingness to partake in innovative lateral thinking,
a vigorous sense of social awareness and the capacity to act with
48. The Council of Europe White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue
adopted by its Committee of Ministers on 7 May 2008 emphasises the
value of intercultural dialogue for preventing ethnic, religious,
linguistic and cultural divides and recognises that music, art and
dance can be powerful tools for intercultural education. It also
states that the arts naturally cross borders and connect and speak
directly to people’s emotions. Creative citizens, engaged in cultural
activity, produce new spaces and potential for dialogue. This approach
was the reason for the “artists for dialogue” initiative proposed
by the Council of Europe Conference of Ministers responsible for
Culture in Baku (Azerbaijan) on 2-3 December 2008.
49. It is evident that diversity and a multicultural environment
tend to stimulate creativity. The dialogue between the cultures
and the discussion of similarities and differences – in other words,
of Europe’s diversity – is the basis for harmonious and peaceful
co-existence. It creates quality of life and opportunities for development
for everyone and strengthens our sense of responsibility for a united
Europe and for the world as a whole.
50. Educational policy that has as its goal tolerance and mutual
understanding has the potential to transform the increasing multiculturalism
of European societies into an asset for creativity, innovation and
6 Cultural teaching and learning
51. Cultural education thus implies opening up our society
by means of art and culture. Open forms of learning and shared creative
processes create space for encounters and for dealing constructively
with differences. This space has physical, intellectual, emotional
and social dimensions.
Cultural education cannot simply be prescribed. It requires
a new culture of teaching and learning, which:
- is open and co-operative both
internally and externally;
- focuses on the needs of the pupils;
- is open to innovative, interdisciplinary work;
- is project-oriented.
53. In this sense, the Austrian Minister of Education Dr. Claudia
Schmied describes cultural education as a central motif of the current
development of the school system.It
is a common concern and a dynamic process involving parents, pupils,
teachers, school administrations, artists, cultural and art educators
and the societal environment as well as the industrial, political
and administrative sectors.
54. Quality in cultural education is achieved by means of exchange
and partnerships; a major factor in achieving such quality is thus
the ability to co-operate. It is necessary to initiate and extend
networks and partnerships between culture and working life that
also includes civil society and other stakeholders. Such partnerships
require the proper supporting framework conditions and supervision.
And they succeed best in cases where such activities become a part
of the overall strategic orientation of an institution.
Essential preconditions for good co-operation are:
- shared spaces for these types
- common visions;
- clear strategies;
- mutual trust and shared responsibility;
- good co-operation;
- excellent communication between the partners;
- the boundaries between schools and communities must be
- excessive formalisation in the planning and implementation
of activities must be avoided;
- a more open discourse on quality must be achieved;
- commitment needs to be appropriately valued.
56. In order to be able to learn from one another and pass on
experience and knowledge, it is important to document processes
and results and to set up data bases, systematise them and make
57. Learning communities and educational policy measures need
to be based on good practices, differentiated exchange and appropriate
dissemination. Overstepping institutional boundaries, attempting
to break out of clearly delimited systems, does not, as a rule,
proceed without conflicts. And it always demands above-average commitment.
Stretching boundaries always begins with taking an interest in others.
It requires openness for new things and the courage to become involved
in something that could develop in unforeseen ways.
58. The European goals – equality of opportunity for all, cosmopolitanism
and justice – have to lead the way. If we are aware of the challenges
that life today presents for individuals and the community – namely,
not merely to tolerate cultural differences but to analyse them
and come to understand the reasons behind their ever new manifestations,
not to confuse integration with assimilation, and to see participation
as a constructive and active “taking part” rather than only as something
passive – then we have arrived at the core of cultural education.
59. Whether it is language, media culture, music, art, dance,
drama, design, architecture, material culture, fashion, everyday
culture, rites, forms of thinking and acting, or aspects of everyday
culture that form the basis of cultural dialogue: we are drawing
here on a treasure trove of languages and ways of articulating,
of knowledge and experience, of history and the present day.
60. In 2003 Simon Rattle, principal conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic,
began a dance project in co-operation with Royston Maldoom and 250
children from very different social backgrounds living in Berlin. Stravinsky’s
“The Rite of Spring” was rehearsed together and performed in the
Treptow Arena in the Treptower Park with great success. Embedded
in a series of projects this co-operative effort was aimed at addressing young
people from socially dysfunctional areas by using the production
level to turn it into a joint space for experience and negotiation
about the differing views of music, movement; of life and aims.
Royston Maldoom, dancer and choreographer, says: “Through dance
we can connect both our inner selves and others, transcending barriers
of language, race, gender, with the potential to overcome negative
attitudes to our differing economic, social, religious and cultural
background, and at the same time maintaining our own particular
61. Cultural education grows out of learning processes that take
the inner differentiations and complexities of culture into account.
It lets us experience the learning process with the senses and allows
us to internally comprehend how people, under different conditions,
have understood the world, interpreted it, acted in it and changed
it in different ways and continue to do so.Our
openness for learning processes of this kind is continually being
62. It is when resources become scanty and insecurity grows, when
a lack of opportunities allows no visions of the future, that borders
are closed up tight and there is a tendency to retreat behind hardened
constructions of what is one’s own and what is alien. Idealisations
and demonisations are frequent side effects of this process. Deviations
from what is familiar engender rejection and aggression, or are
penalised with marginalisation. Discussions about identity and culture
then often serve the purpose of justifying separation and exclusion.
63. Cultural education programmes cannot work miracles, but they
can introduce new perspectives, make restrictive views and actions
perceptible, and challenge people to make a move – however small.
In this sense they open up negotiation spaces, promote active debate
and thus help to develop a conflict management culture. This can
be compared to the work strategies of the Japanese Foundation in
the field of peacemaking.
64. Parallel to the school, learning is increasingly taking place
in informal contexts and during free time. Instruments of learning
based on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are on
offer and extremely helpful. In addition, living outside the centres
should not result in any disadvantages for the individual.
The use of new technologies can develop these projects considerably
further and open up entirely new dimensions for communication and
negotiation. In this respect, the Parliamentary Assembly’s Recommendation 1836 (2008)
realising the full potential of e-learning for education and training
can also be of general guidance.
66. For example, Border Games is a project in Spain to empower
young migrants through the process of designing and programming
a videogame fully made by them. Border Games comprises a series
of workshops, a videogame engine and an editor which allows young
migrants not only to design a video game in which their experiences
are the main element, but also to learn the importance of becoming
familiar with new technologies and using them to self-organise and
recover control over their own lives and environments. (www.bordergames.org)
67. Every society is permeated with cultural differences.
They arise between generations as well as between different communities
and sexes, between social groupings and between varieties of self-chosen
affiliations. They develop as a result of people’s different backgrounds
and reflect different life situations. We carry them inside us.
They construct identity. How we deal with these outer and inner
differences plays a role in determining our future.In this sense, too, the growing
importance of cultural education is confirmed in many ways.
68. Good and exemplary practices work towards countering marginalisation,
isolation and exclusion. A broad spectrum of projects and programmes
can cater to the needs of a wide variety of target groups. Numerous
best practice examples have been documented.
Europe has a challenge relating to educational and cultural
policy. But above and beyond the colourful practice of projects
developed and implemented by dedicated educators, and apart from
philosophic discourse, cultural education requires:
- a suitable infrastructure;
- financial and human resources;
- debate among experts about content and objectives;
- the appropriate political framework.
In this context, measures are needed in the area of cultural
and educational policy, for example:
- the coordination of individual measures;
- advocacy and lobbying;
- an intensification of European co-operation;
- structural safeguarding of cultural education programmes
in schools and outside them;
- research funding.
Committee on Culture, Science and Education
Reference to committee: Doc. 11327 rev,
Reference No. 3379 of 5 October 2007
Draft recommendation adopted
unanimously by the committee on 25 June 2009
Members of the committee:
Mrs Anne Brasseur, (Chairperson),
Mr Detlef Dzembritzki (1st
Vice-Chairperson), Mr Mehmet Tekelioğlu (2nd
Vice-Chairperson), Mrs Miroslava Němcová, (3rd Vice-Chairperson)
Mr Vicenç Alay Ferrer, Mr Florin Serghei Anghel (Alternate:
Mrs Maria Stavrositu), Mrs
Aneliya Atanasova, Mr Lokman Ayva,
Mr Walter Bartoš, Mrs Deborah Bergamini, Mrs Oksana Bilozir,
Mrs Guðfinna S. Bjarnadóttir, Mrs Rossana Boldi, Mr Ivan Brajović,
Mr Petru Călian, Mr Joan Cartes Ivern,
Lord David Chidgey, Mr Miklós Csapody,
Mr Vlad Cubreacov, Mrs Lena Dąbkowska-Cichocka, Mr Joseph Debono
Grech (Alternate: Mr Joseph Falzon),
Mr Daniel Ducarme, Ms Åse Gunhild Woie Duesund,
Mrs Anke Eymer, Mr Gianni Farina, Mr Relu Fenechiu, Mrs Blanca Fernández-Capel
Baños, Mr Axel Fischer, Mr
Gvozden Srećko Flego, Mr
Dario Franceschini Mr José Freire Antunes (Alternate: Mr José Luis Arnaut), Mrs Gisèle Gautier (Alternate: Mr Philippe Nachbar), Mr Ioannis Giannellis-Theodosiadis (Alternate:
Mr Georgios Voulgarakis),
Mr Martin Graf, Mr Oliver Heald (Alternate: Baroness Knight of Collingtree), Mr Rafael Huseynov, Mr Fazail İbrahimli, Mr
Mogens Jensen (Alternate:
Mrs Sophie Løhde), Mr Morgan Johansson, Mrs Francine John-Calame, Ms Flora Kadriu, Mrs Liana
Kanelli, Mr Jan Kaźmierczak,
Ms Cecilia Keaveney, Mrs
Svetlana Khorkina, Mr Serhii Kivalov, Mr Anatoliy Korobeynikov,
Ms Elvira Kovács, Mr József Kozma, Mr Jean-Pierre Kucheida, Mr Ertuğrul Kumcuoğlu, Ms Dalia Kuodytė, Mr
Markku Laukkanen, Mr René
van der Linden, Mrs Milica Marković, Mrs Muriel Marland-Militello, Mr Andrew McIntosh,
Mrs Maria Manuela de Melo,
Mrs Assunta Meloni, Mr Paskal Milo, Ms Christine Muttonen, (Alternate: Mr Albrecht Konecny), Mr Tomislav Nikolić, Mr Edward O'Hara, Mr Kent Olsson, Mr Andrey Pantev, Mrs Antigoni Papadopoulos (Alternate: Mr Fidias Sarikas), Mrs Zatuhi Postanjyan, Mrs Adoración Quesada
Bravo, Mr Frédéric Reiss, Mrs Mailis Reps, Mrs Andreja Rihter (Alternate: Mr Ljubo Germic), Mr Nicolae Robu, Mrs Tatiana Rosova, Mr Paul Rowen, Mrs Anta Rugāte, Mrs Ana Sánchez Hernández,
Mr Leander Schädler, Mr Yury
Solonin (Alternate: Mr Oleg Panteleev),
Mr Christophe Steiner, Mrs Doris Stump,
Mr Valeriy Sudarenkov, Mr
Petro Symonenko, Mr Guiorgui Targamadzé, Mr Hugo Vandenberghe, Mr
Klaas De Vries, Mr Piotr Wach (Alternate:
Mr Michał Stuligrosz), Mr
N.B.: The names of the members who took part in the meeting
are printed in bold
Secretariat of the committee:Mr
Ary, Mr Dossow