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Euro-Mediterranean region: call for a Council of Europe strategy

Report | Doc. 12108 | 07 January 2010

Committee
Committee on Political Affairs and Democracy
Rapporteur :
Mr Denis BADRÉ, France, ALDE
Thesaurus

Summary

The report recalls the importance of the stability in the Mediterranean for Europe, and underscores that it could only be achieved on the basis of democracy, respect for human rights and the rule of law.

It takes stock of the existing Euro-Mediterranean relations, both at EU level, including the Barcelona Process and the Union for the Mediterranean, and as regards the Council of Europe. It comes to the conclusion that the contribution of our Organisation to the Euro-Mediterranean partnership process should be strengthened.

To achieve this, the report suggests a two-track approach: intensifying bilateral co-operation with those Mediterranean countries which so wish in the areas of the Council of Europe’s competence, and contributing to the action of the Union for the Mediterranean by extending it to the areas of democracy, protection of human rights and the rule of law.

A Draft resolution

1 The Mediterranean region occupies a strategic position in Europe’s neighbourhood and has historical, cultural, economic and human links with Europe. Peace and stability in this region take on a crucial importance for Europe.
2 The Parliamentary Assembly reiterates how much importance it attaches to enhancing co-operation and exchanges with Mediterranean countries and refers in particular to Resolution 1598 (2008) on strengthening co-operation with the Maghreb countries, and to its activities designed to contribute to the Middle East peace process. It also recalls that the Heads of State and Government of the Council of Europe, meeting at their Warsaw Summit in May 2005, expressed their commitment to new intercultural and inter-religious dialogue with neighbouring regions – the southern Mediterranean, the Middle East and central Asia – based on respect for universal human rights.
3 In this connection, the Assembly is pleased to note the recent progress accomplished by various bodies, institutions and mechanisms in the task of establishing co-operation between the Council of Europe and non-member Mediterranean states. It particularly welcomes the accession of several non-member states in this region to the Council of Europe’s conventions and partial agreements.
4 The Assembly notes that the European Union has embarked on a policy aimed at establishing a partnership with the Mediterranean countries and contributing to stability in the region. The Euro-Mediterranean partnership was launched in 1995 as the “Barcelona Process”, which was complemented in 2004 by the European Neighbourhood Policy and more recently placed on an institutional footing through the creation in 2008 of the Union for the Mediterranean, which comprises all the European Union member states and the countries bordering the Mediterranean.
5 The Assembly reaffirms its belief that peace and stability in the Mediterranean region can only be secured in the long term on the basis of democracy, human rights and the rule of law, as has been demonstrated by the evolution of the European process, both within the European Union, which is founded on these principles, and within the Council of Europe, whose statutory task it is to promote, protect and foster these values and principles.
6 It notes that several Mediterranean countries assert that they are committed to these values and principles and show interest in taking advantage of the Council of Europe’s experience and expertise in this field. However, these subjects are not among the priorities announced in the multilateral activities of the Union for the Mediterranean, even if the Joint Declaration of the Paris Summit for the Mediterranean, which is the founding document of the Union, refers to democracy. Apart from this, in its bilateral relations with some Mediterranean states, the European Union refers specifically to the Council of Europe.
7 The Assembly therefore considers that the Council of Europe should intensify its bilateral co-operation in these spheres of activity with any Mediterranean countries which so desire. At the same time, it should take part in the multilateral process of Euro-Mediterranean partnership and make its own contribution to this. The Assembly would emphasise that it is not for the Council of Europe to try to compete with the actions of the Union for the Mediterranean by setting up parallel structures, but to complement it by adding the dimension relating to democracy, human rights and the rule of law.
8 The Assembly calls on the Union for the Mediterranean to extend its sphere of activities in order to include the promotion of democracy, human rights and the rule of law and to involve the Council of Europe in this. It appeals to the European Union and its member states, and the Council of Europe member states taking part in the Union for the Mediterranean, to help to get the Council of Europe involved in its activities.
9 The Assembly reiterates its interest in participating in, and willingness to contribute to, the development of the parliamentary dimension of Euro-Mediterranean relations. In this context, it refers to its decision to set up a new status of “partner for democracy”, which comes into effect in January 2010, and strongly encourages the national parliaments of the non-member states of the Council of Europe taking part in the Union for the Mediterranean to take advantage of the new prospects for dialogue and co-operation that this opens up.
10 The Assembly welcomes the implication of the European Union in the action of the European Centre for Global Interdependence and Solidarity (North-South Centre), through political and financial support brought by the European Commission and the participation of the European Commission and of the European Parliament in the Executive Council of the North-South Centre. It recalls its suggestion in its Recommendation 1893 (2009) to endow the North-South Centre with a new statute and invites the European Union to consider joining the North-South Centre in its proper capacity.
11 The Assembly invites the non-member states of the Council of Europe taking part in the Union for the Mediterranean to take advantage of the Council of Europe’s experience and call on its expertise in various areas, and, in particular to:
11.1 accede to the Council of Europe legal instruments open to non-member states, in particular to those in the fields of democracy, human rights and the rule of law;
11.2 abolish, if they have not already done so, capital punishment;
11.3 join, if they have not already done so, the Council of Europe’s enlarged partial agreements such as the North-South Centre, the European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission) and the European and Mediterranean Major Hazards Agreement (EUR-OPA);
11.4 join, if they have not already done so, the MedNET Mediterranean co-operation network on drugs and addiction (including alcohol and tobacco);
11.5 promote dialogue and co-operation between their parliaments and the Assembly;
11.6 promote co-operation between the local and regional authorities in their country and the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of the Council of Europe;
11.7 establish contacts between the Council of Europe and the authorities in their country responsible for questions of justice, culture, education and higher education, youth and sport, gender equality and the rights of the child;
11.8 study, in particular through the North-South Centre, and to use, in the activities of their respective national authorities the experience of the institutions monitoring respect for human rights (the European Court of Human Rights and the Commissioner for Human Rights), as well as of the various independent monitoring mechanisms set up by the Council of Europe such as the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities and the European Social Charter;
11.9 foster contacts between civil society representatives and the Conference of INGOs of the Council of Europe.
12 The Assembly calls on the member states which are not yet members, as well as the European Union, to join the North-South Centre.

B Draft recommendation

1 The Parliamentary Assembly refers to its Resolution … (2010) “Euro-Mediterranean region: call for a Council of Europe strategy”.
2 It reiterates how much importance it attaches to enhancing co-operation and exchanges with Mediterranean countries in order to promote the principles and values of democracy, human rights and the rule of law and hence to contribute to peace, security and stability in the region.
3 It notes that the European Union and all its member states, together with six other member states of the Council of Europe (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Monaco, Montenegro and Turkey), are members of the Union for the Mediterranean, which was set up in July 2008 to work with the partner countries on the southern shore of the Mediterranean to build a future of peace, democracy, prosperity and human, social and cultural understanding.
4 It considers that the Council of Europe can make a significant contribution to the process of Euro-Mediterranean partnership in its fields of competence.
5 It therefore recommends that the Committee of Ministers should consider, together with the European Union, which is the Council of Europe’s natural partner, the possibility and the practicalities of making such a contribution.
6 It also recommends that the Committee of Ministers should consider:
6.1 to invite the European Union to join the European Centre for Global Interdependence and Solidarity (North-South Centre);
6.2 to promote, in its contacts with the states of the Mediterranean Basin, joining the legal instruments of the Council of Europe;
6.3 the possibility of opening up certain Council of Europe conventions, particularly the European Cultural Convention, for signature by Council of Europe non-member states;
6.4 the opportunity to invite the states of the Mediterranean Basin to participate in certain activities of the Council of Europe which could present a common interest.

C Explanatory memorandum by Mr Badré, rapporteur

1 Introduction

1 The Mediterranean Basin, which forms the southern maritime limit of the European continent, is a vast geographical area extending from Portugal in the west to the Middle East and Turkey in the east. However, it is more than just a geographical concept: the Mediterranean is one of the cradles of human civilisation and the starting place of the three main world religions.
2 Since antiquity, the southern and northern shores of Mare Nostrum have been linked together at the heart of a unique uninterrupted group, united by this sea. Traditionally, there have always been historical, religious and cultural ties, trading links and migratory movements between the European, African and Asian shores of the Mediterranean.
3 The shores of the Mediterranean are united by history and geography and it should be no surprise that they are brought closer together still by modern developments. In an increasingly open world, problems and challenges no longer stop at geographical boundaries or national borders. The Mediterranean is a highly telling example of this. The northern and southern countries share more and more problems such as pollution, insecurity, illegal immigration, trafficking of all sorts and social conflicts. These problems are compounded by the growing gap and inequalities between the North and the South.
4 The Council of Europe, which works to achieve greater unity between its member states based on respect for the fundamental values and principles of democracy, human rights and the rule of law, cannot afford to ignore this new situation. Europe’s peace, stability and security are increasingly bound up with those of its neighbouring regions, in particular, around the Mediterranean.
5 For Europe’s stability it is essential for there to be increased stability in the Mediterranean region. Yet, this stability cannot be exported or, still less, imposed. It can only be brought about by a long-term effort aimed at meeting the challenges and solving the problems which the region currently faces. Since Europe has such a major interest in the outcome of this process, it has a duty to contribute to it, and the Council of Europe can help in the areas in which it is competent.
6 These were the ideas which prompted me to table, in January 2008, a motion for a recommendation entitled “Euro-Mediterranean region: call for a Council of Europe strategy”. I would like to thank the members of the Parliamentary Assembly who supported me in this.
7 On the sidelines of the Assembly sessions in Strasbourg, I have repeatedly had occasion to meet fellow parliamentarians representing the southern Mediterranean countries. In these contacts, I have felt a sincere wish to learn more about the Council and take advantage of the Council’s expertise to stimulate reforms and bring about the modernisation of their countries. This open-mindedness and pursuit of partnership means a lot to me and I would like to thank them for it.
8 My aim is not for this report to be exhaustive. Relations between Europe and the Mediterranean are so intense and dynamic that 10 or more reports would be needed to cover all the aspects! My goal is to give a brief overview of what is already being done at European Union and Council of Europe level, and make a few suggestions as to how the Council could be contributing more actively to the Euro-Mediterranean partnership process.

2 Review of the situation at European Union level: the Barcelona Process and the Union for the Mediterranean

9 The European Union began actively to devise a structured joint policy vis-à-vis the Mediterranean region in the 1990s by means of the Euro-Mediterranean partnership, which was also known as the “Barcelona Process”. Before that the European communities had had co-operation agreements with countries around the Mediterranean but it had not yet adopted a coherent strategy for the entire region.
10 In November 1995, the ministers for foreign affairs of the 15 member states of the European Union and 12 Mediterranean countries, meeting in Barcelona, launched the new Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (which was abbreviated as MAP or Euro-Med). Its aim was to foster peace and stability in the region by establishing political dialogue based on respect for the partners’ shared values such as democracy and the rule of law, and to promote conflict prevention and settlement and bring about prosperity, in particular through the creation of a free trade area and the development of co-operation fields.
11 The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership united the member states of the European Union and the Mediterranean countries involved around a broad partnership programme, focusing on three areas of activity:
  • political and security-related dialogue aimed at creating a common area of peace and stability based on respect for human rights and democracy;
  • an economic and financial partnership and the gradual establishment of a free-trade area to create a zone of shared prosperity and support the economic transition of partner countries;
  • a social, cultural and human partnership intended to foster understanding between peoples and cultures and contacts between civil society organisations.
12 Increased co-operation in the fields of justice, migration and social integration was also a key part of the process. Initially, implementation of the partnership was based on two approaches – a bilateral approach and a regional one.
13 In 2003, the European Union set up a European Neighbourhood Policy, the aim of which was to establish special links with neighbouring countries that did not have any prospect of joining the European Union, including the Mediterranean ones. It was established with a view to sharing the benefits of enlargement with these countries and avoiding the emergence of new divisions, and was intended to complement and strengthen the Barcelona Process at a bilateral level. It has become the main model for bilateral relations between the European Union and its Mediterranean partners.
14 The special relations formed in the context of the Neighbourhood Policy are shaped by a mutual interest in respecting the common values of democracy, the rule of law, human rights, good governance, the market economy and sustainable development.
15 However, it has to be said that the results of the Barcelona Process and the Neighbourhood Policy have been mixed, and fallen well short of the participating countries’ expectations. It was as a result of this that the French President, Nicolas Sarkozy, had the idea of setting up a “Mediterranean Union”.
16 In July 2008, at the Paris Summit for the Mediterranean organised by the French presidency of the European Union, the Union for the Mediterranean was officially created. It now comprises the 27 member states of the European Union and 16 partner countries from the southern Mediterranean region and the Middle East.
17 The aim of this new framework is to give fresh impetus to the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership and enhance the political nature of relations between the European Union and its neighbours in the Mediterranean Basin. The Union for the Mediterranean aims to preserve the achievements of the Barcelona Process while offering more balanced governance and public accountability together with a commitment to carry out tangible regional and transnational projects.
18 Among the more important new features of the Union for the Mediterranean are a rotating co-presidency with one European Union president and one president representing the Mediterranean partners, and a secretariat based in Barcelona that is responsible for identifying and promoting projects of regional, sub-regional and transnational value across different sectors.
19 The Union for the Mediterranean has identified six priority projects, which will be at the heart of its activities, namely the depollution of the Mediterranean Sea, the establishment of maritime and land highways, civil protection initiatives to combat natural and man-made disasters, a Mediterranean solar energy plan, the inauguration of the Euro-Mediterranean University in Slovenia and the Mediterranean Business Development Initiative focusing on micro, small and medium-sized enterprises.
20 However, although the new project positions itself as the successor to the Barcelona Process, there are areas in which it seems less ambitious and among these are its plans in the spheres of democracy and human rights.
21 While the Joint Declaration of the Paris Summit for the Mediterranean refers to the shared political will of the participants to stabilise the Mediterranean into an area of peace, democracy, co-operation and prosperity (paragraph 1 of the Preamble), it is noticeable that none of the six priority action areas refers to this goal.
22 The Council of Europe’s areas of expertise do not therefore seem to be part of the Union for the Mediterranean’s priorities, at least for the time being. The question is whether this was an oversight or an abdication of responsibility. In truth, the sustainable stability and prosperity which are announced as the aims of the new organisation will only be possible in the long run if there is genuine respect for democracy, human rights and the rule of law in the region. As rapporteur, I prefer to see this as potential leeway for complementary activities and an opportunity to establish co-operation between the Union for the Mediterranean and the Council of Europe.
23 It should also be recalled that, since the very beginning, the new body has encountered a series of political obstacles, which do not augur well for its future. The war in Gaza in December 2008 brought the new body to an almost complete halt and this situation is likely to continue for as long as there is no settlement to the Middle East conflict.

3 The Council of the Europe and the Mediterranean countries – Existing co-operation

24 The Council of Europe’s role in co-operating with Mediterranean countries may be less prominent than that of the European Union but it is no less important. Several Council authorities and bodies have established co-operation projects over the years with a wide range of partners in the southern and eastern Mediterranean regions.
25 At the political level, the Assembly has taken a constant interest in Mediterranean issues right across the board and in establishing contacts and dialogue with parliamentarians from the region’s countries.
26 In this connection, a mention should be made of the reports prepared by the Political Affairs Committee on “Strengthening co-operation with the Maghreb countries” (Mrs Durrieu) and the “Situation in Western Sahara” (Mr Puche).In addition, the recent report on the “Establishment of a ‘partner for democracy’ status with the Parliamentary Assembly” (Mr Van den Brande) has made it possible to set up a new form of advanced partnership between the Parliamentary Assembly and the region’s parliaments.
27 Reference should also be made to the Assembly’s commitment to promoting peace in the Middle East. Our contacts with the parliamentary delegations of the Knesset and the Palestinian Legislative Council give us an opportunity to contribute to the dialogue between these bodies and take part in the quest for a fair solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The Tripartite Forum set up by the Political Affairs Committee plays a leading role in this.
28 The Assembly has dealt with other issues and problems affecting the Mediterranean region such as demographic imbalances, illegal migration, environment and sustainable development, Mediterranean agriculture, cultural co-operation, the situation of women and many others.
29 The Israeli Knesset has observer status with the Assembly, and members of the Palestinian Legislative Council and the parliaments of the Maghreb countries are systematically invited to Assembly sessions, Assembly committee meetings and various other activities organised by the Assembly.
30 The Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of the Council of Europe fosters dialogue with local elected representatives from the southern Mediterranean countries, and among its observers are the Union of Local Authorities in Israel, the Association of Palestinian Local Authorities, the Arab Towns Organisation, the Standing Committee for the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership of Local and Regional Authorities and the Amphictyony (Union) of Twinned Cities and Areas in the Mediterranean.
31 Imposing common standards is one of the strong points of the Council of Europe’s activities. Of the 200 or so treaties drawn up under the Council’s auspices, over 150 are open for signature by non-European non-member states. However, this opportunity for co-operation has still only been explored somewhat tentatively by our Mediterranean partners. Israel has acceded to 10 conventions, Tunisia has adhered to four and Morocco is a party to just one. Extra efforts are required to promote the Council’s legal instruments among the Mediterranean countries.
32 A special place in legal co-operation between the Council of Europe and the Mediterranean countries is occupied by the European Commission for Democracy through Law, more commonly referred to as the Venice Commission. This authority, which is the Council of Europe’s advisory body on constitutional issues, contributes to the dissemination of Europe’s constitutional heritage and the fundamental rules on which it is based. Currently, Algeria, Israel, Morocco and Tunisia are full members of the Venice Commission and the Palestinian Authority has a special co-operation status.
33 However, the chief contributor to the development of co-operation between the Council of Europe and the Mediterranean countries is undoubtedly the European Centre for Global Interdependence and Solidarity (more commonly known as the “North-South Centre”), which was founded in November 1989 and has just celebrated its 20th anniversary.
34 The North-South Centre’s twofold task is to provide a framework for co-operation designed to heighten public awareness of global interdependence issues, and to promote policies of solidarity in accordance with the Council of Europe’s aims and principles, namely with due regard for human rights, democracy and social cohesion.
35 Under the North-South Centre’s statute, it must engage in the following activities:
  • giving a European dimension to multilateral co-operation initiatives for sustainable development and serving as a framework for their implementation;
  • improving education and information on global interdependence and solidarity;
  • strengthening ties between non-governmental organisations in the North and the South;
  • developing working relations with all international organisations concerned with global interdependence;
  • acting as an interface between Europe and the South.
36 The North-South Centre is often described as the Council of Europe’s window on the world, as its purpose is to assert the validity of the values it upholds outside Europe. This means that it offers an ideal forum for establishing contacts and creating the conditions for raising awareness, identifying needs and transferring knowledge between various Council of Europe bodies and potential partners in co-operation activities.
37 Currently, 21 states are members of the North-South Centre and 19 of these are Council of Europe member states. Morocco was recently the first non-European state to join. Some Mediterranean countries take part in projects run by the North-South Centre but have not yet formally joined. There should be a campaign to promote membership both among the Council of Europe member states and among the southern Mediterranean countries.
38 The European Union takes part in the activities of the centre by sending representatives of the European Commission and the European Parliament to sit on its Executive Council, but it has not yet joined in its own right. The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty should make it possible for the European Union to join if there is a political desire to do so.
39 Among the other Council of Europe mechanisms which provide a framework for co-operation with its Mediterranean partners are the Co-operation Group to Combat Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking in Drugs (the Pompidou Group) and the European and Mediterranean Major Hazards Agreement (EUR-OPA).
40 The Co-operation group to combat drug abuse and illicit trafficking in drugs (Pompidou Group) organises co-operation with neighbouring Mediterranean countries. In 2006, the MedNET Mediterranean Network for Co-operation on Drugs and Addictions (including alcohol and tobacco) was set up to promote co-operation, exchange and the two-way transfer of knowledge between southern Mediterranean and European countries which are members of the Pompidou Group. Algeria, Lebanon, Morocco and Tunisia are already members. Jordan and Egypt were recently invited to join.
41 The EUR-OPA Major Hazards Agreement is a forum for co-operation in the field of major hazards involving European and southern Mediterranean countries. Its remit covers major natural and technological disasters, including knowledge, prevention, risk management, post-crisis analysis and rehabilitation. Its main objectives are to reinforce and to promote co-operation between member states in a multidisciplinary context to ensure better prevention, protection against risks and better preparation in the event of major natural or technological disasters. Current members include Algeria, Lebanon and Morocco.
42 Lastly, some of the Council of Europe’s areas of activity which may also be of interest to its Mediterranean partners are culture, education and teaching, migration and many others. In all of these areas, the Council of Europe’s experience and expertise are well known and appreciated.

4 New prospects opened up by “partner for democracy” status

43 As mentioned above, the Parliamentary Assembly recently adopted a new status for parliaments in Europe’s neighbouring regions which wish to keep up structured, institutionalised relations with it, known as “partner for democracy” status. In Bern, in November 2009, the Standing Committee made the necessary amendments to the Assembly’s Rules of Procedure and the new status will come into effect in January 2010.
44 It should be pointed out that the new status places most emphasis on promoting the Council of Europe’s core values of democracy, human rights and the rule of law, which are also the stated goals of several southern Mediterranean countries.
45 The new status enables parliamentarians from non-member states to take an active part in the work of the Assembly and its committees, to make their desires and concerns known and to take initiatives.
46 It provides a common framework in which “tailor-made” co-operation can be developed on a country-by-country basis in accordance with the needs identified.
47 This new status should now be the main means of promoting Council of Europe values at parliamentary level. This should be of interest, in particular, for the countries of the Mediterranean Basin.
48 At the same time, it is contacts in parliament who are in the best position to gain an overview of our partners’ interests and co-operation needs on the one hand and what it is possible for the Council of Europe to do on the other. Parliamentary activities have often played a pioneering role in the development of new forms of co-operation at the Council of Europe.
49 I therefore strongly urge parliamentarians in the Mediterranean countries to take advantage of the prospects that have now been opened up by “partner for democracy” status.

5 Conclusions and proposals

50 The Euro-Mediterranean partnership is now a fait accompli. It has existed since the launch of the Barcelona Process and is now continuing in the form of the Union for the Mediterranean. Whether it is successful or not and achieves its goals is another question. However, the Council of Europe does not participate in it, at least on any kind of formal basis.
51 The Council of Europe has already been making great efforts at bilateral level to establish a partnership and practical co-operation with the southern Mediterranean countries.
52 The question is whether the possibility of combining the two activities might be contemplated or, if not, whether the Council should launch a parallel scheme.
53 I am convinced that peace and stability in the Mediterranean can only be secured in the long term on the basis of democracy, human rights and the rule of law, as has been demonstrated by the progress of European integration, both within the European Union, which is founded on these principles, and within the Council of Europe, whose statutory task it is to promote, protect and foster these values and principles.
54 For this reason, I believe that the Council of Europe has a part to play in the Mediterranean region, which should be based on our values and our principles.
55 However, it would be senseless to try to compete with the European Union and add to the existing profusion of structures. Instead the emphasis should be on ensuring that those that already exist can carry out the tasks they are entrusted with efficiently.
56 I therefore propose that we take a twofold approach, which is reflected in the draft resolution and the draft recommendation:
  • at the bilateral level, we should continue to offer our partners the Council of Europe’s experience and expertise on a “tailor-made” basis, in areas which interest them in particular and using the existing structures and mechanisms;
  • on the multilateral front, we should be attempting to complement and participate in the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership process and the Union for the Mediterranean so that the areas in which the Council of Europe is regarded as a leader, namely democracy, human rights and the rule of law, can be incorporated into them.

***

Reporting committee: Political Affairs Committee

Reference to committee: Doc. 11507, Reference 3420 of 14 April 2008

Draft resolution and draft recommendation unanimously adopted by the committee on 15 December 2009

Members of the committee : Mr Göran Lindblad (Chairman), Mr David Wilshire (Vice-Chairman), Mr Björn Von Sydow (Vice-Chairman) (alternate: Mrs Kerstin Lundgren), Mrs Fátima Aburto Baselga, Mr Francis Agius (alternate: Mr Joseph Debono Grech), Mr Alexander Babakov (alternate: Mr Sergey Markov), Mr Viorel Badea, Mr Denis Badré, Mr Andris Bērzinš, Mr Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu, Mr Lorenzo Cesa, Mr Titus Corlăţean, Ms Anna Čurdová, Mr Rick Daems, Mrs Maria Damanaki (alternate: Mr Konstantinos Vrettos), Mr Dumitru Diacov, Mr Pol van den Driessche, Ms Josette Durrieu, Mr Frank Fahey, Mr Piero Fassino, Mr György Frunda, Mr Jean-Charles Gardetto, Mr Marco Gatti, Mr Andreas Gross, Mr Michael Hancock, Mr Davit Harutyunyan, Mr Norbert Haupert, Mr Joachim Hörster, Mrs Sinikka Hurskainen, Mr Tadeusz Iwiński, Mr Bakir Izetbegović (alternate: Mr Mladen Ivanić), Mr Michael Aastrup Jensen, Mr Miloš Jevtić, Mrs Birgen Keleş, Mr Victor Kolesnikov (alternate: Mrs Olha Herasym’yuk), Mr Konstantin Kosachev, Mr Jean-Pierre Kucheida, Ms Darja Lavtižar-Bebler, Mr René van der Linden, Mr Dariusz Lipiński, Mr Gennaro Malgieri, Mr Dick Marty, Mr Frano Matušić, Mr Silver Meikar, Mr Evangelos Meimarakis, Mr Dragoljub Mićunović, Mr Jean-Claude Mignon, Mr Aydin Mirzazada, Mr Juan Moscoso del Prado Hernández, Ms Lilja Mósesdóttir, Mr João Bosco Mota Amaral, Mrs Olga Nachtmannová, Mr Gebhard Negele, Mrs Miroslava Nemcová, Mr Zsolt Németh, Mr Fritz Neugebauer (alternate: Mr Franz Eduard Kühnel), Mr Aleksandar Nikoloski, Mr Hryhoriy Omelchenko, Mr Maciej Orzechowski, Mr Ivan Popescu, Mr Christos Pourgourides, Mr John Prescott (alternate: Mr John Austin), Mr Gabino Puche, Mr Amadeu Rossell Tarradellas, Mr Ilir Rusmali, Mr Ingo Schmitt (alternate: Mr Eduard Lintner), Mr Predrag Sekulić, Mr Samad Seyidov, Mr Leonid Slutsky, Mr Rainder Steenblock, Mr Zoltán Szabó (alternate: Mr Mátyás Eörsi), Mr Mehmet Tekelioğlu, Mr Han Ten Broeke, Mr Zhivko Todorov, Lord Tomlinson (alternate: Mr Rudi Vis), Mr Latchezar Toshev, Mr Petré Tsiskarishvili, Mr Mihai Tudose, Mr Ilyas Umakhanov, Mr José Vera Jardim, Mr Luigi Vitali, Mr Wolfgang Wodarg, Mrs Karin S. Woldseth, Ms Gisela Wurm, Mr Emanuelis Zingeris

Ex-officio: Mr Tiny Kox

NB: The names of the members who took part in the meeting are printed in bold

Secretariat of the committee: Mrs Nachilo, Mr Chevtchenko, Mrs Sirtori-Milner

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