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Parliaments united in combating sexual violence against children: mid-term review of the ONE in FIVE Campaign

Report | Doc. 13151 | 27 March 2013

Committee
Committee on Social Affairs, Health and Sustainable Development
Rapporteur :
Ms Sílvia Eloïsa BONET PEROT, Andorra, SOC
Origin
Reference to committee: Doc. 13075, Reference 3919 of 30 November 2012. 2013 - Second part-session

Summary

One in five children are estimated to fall victim to sexual violence. Following the opening for signature in 2007 of the Council of Europe’s Lanzarote Convention – which spells out a series of laws and policies to protect children and bring abusers to justice – the Council of Europe ONE in FIVE Campaign to stop sexual violence against children was launched in 2010 to promote the convention and raise awareness of the need to act.

Uniting the various bodies of the Council of Europe, the ONE in FIVE Campaign is run at intergovernmental, parliamentary, regional and local levels. The biggest success of the campaign so far has arguably been the significant increase in the number of ratifications of the Lanzarote Convention, which reached 25 in March 2013.

While the Council of Europe can rightly be proud of the achievements of the first two years of campaigning, it is possible to step up the campaign’s outreach and effectiveness even further in the remaining two years, the Social Affairs Committee believes. It proposes more money for the campaign, greater pressure on States to ratify the convention and bring their laws into line with it, and better co-ordination between different stake-holders so that sexual violence against children is met with zero tolerance.

A Draft recommendationNote

1. Sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children is unfortunately not a new phenomenon, but the vast increase in the number of cases unveiled in Council of Europe member States at the beginning of the 21st century has resulted in rising awareness of the need to protect children from this grave human rights violation and worldwide scourge. Firm legislation, strong policies and action to eradicate sexual violence against children have been introduced in many countries. However, statistics show that there are still far too many incidences of child abuse occurring in various settings, including the wider family environment of children, childcare or educational institutions, or using new information and communication technologies. It is estimated that one in five children fall victim to sexual violence.
2. The Parliamentary Assembly has been fully committed to effectively fighting all kinds of violence against children, including sexual violence, for decades. It thus welcomed the opening for signature in 2007 of the Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse (Lanzarote Convention, CETS No. 201) and the decision in 2010 to launch a campaign to promote this important convention. The Assembly has been developing the parliamentary dimension of the Council of Europe ONE in FIVE Campaign to stop sexual violence against children since its launch in Rome in November 2010.
3. For this purpose, it has enlisted help from the national parliaments of the Council of Europe member States, the parliaments with observer status with the Assembly and those with partner for democracy status, as well as other regional and international parliamentary assemblies, setting up a Network of contact parliamentarians, with 53 members to date.
4. Uniting the various organs and bodies of the Council of Europe, the ONE in FIVE Campaign is run at intergovernmental, parliamentary, regional and local levels. The biggest success of the campaign so far has arguably been the significant increase in the number of ratifications of the Lanzarote Convention, which reached 25 in March 2013, that is more than half of all Council of Europe member States. But the effect of the awareness-raising activities in the 25 countries involved in the first two years of the campaign should not be underestimated either.
5. While the Council of Europe can rightly be proud of the achievements of the first two years of campaigning, the Assembly believes that it is possible to step up the campaign’s outreach and effectiveness even further with a view to meeting the ultimate aim of the campaign: that all member States (and other States beyond Europe where there is a high incidence of sexual abuse of children) are not only Party to the Lanzarote Convention, but also implement its provisions, so that sexual violence against children is met with zero tolerance.
6. The Assembly therefore recommends that the Committee of Ministers:
6.1 allocate adequate financing from the ordinary budget of the Council of Europe to the three dimensions of the campaign until its end in November 2014, and to the Committee of the Parties of the Lanzarote Convention and its Secretariat thereafter;
6.2 incorporate the theme of combating all forms of violence against children into the Council of Europe’s assistance and co-operation programmes;
6.3 urge member States to:
6.3.1 finalise signature and ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse (Lanzarote Convention) by the end of November 2014, if they have not yet done so;
6.3.2 ensure that national legislation is in conformity with the Lanzarote Convention and that its provisions are implemented across the board, tackling all the issues related to sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children;
6.3.3 strengthen the multi-stakeholder approach in the fight against sexual violence against children at all levels, encouraging increased co-operation between the different tiers and levels of government at national level, as well as the full involvement of parliaments, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), the Council of Europe’s European Centre for Global Interdependence and Solidarity (North-South Centre), ombudsperson/child commissioner institutions, academia and children, young people and parents themselves, with an emphasis on going beyond dialogue into concrete measures;
6.3.4 allocate adequate financing to all stakeholders in the fight against sexual violence against children, with special attention being paid to local and regional authorities, NGOs and youth organisations active in the field;
6.3.5 give special attention to redress (including at least symbolic financial compensation) for victims;
6.3.6 disseminate information on the Lanzarote Convention and on the ONE in FIVE Campaign as widely as possible.
7. The Assembly invites national parliaments to continue to support the ONE in FIVE Campaign, and to carry out and supervise the implementation of legislative reform as well as to organise awareness-raising activities in line with the campaign and the provisions of the Lanzarote Convention.

B Explanatory memorandum by Ms Bonet Perot, rapporteur

1 Introduction

1. Sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children is unfortunately not a new phenomenon. The vast increase in the number of cases unveiled in Council of Europe member States at the beginning of the 21st century is not due to the fact that children are less respected today, but rather to a rising awareness of their rights which enables victims to speak out.
2. The Parliamentary Assembly has welcomed this rising awareness of the need to protect children which has resulted in firm legislation and strong policies in many countries. However, statistics show that there are still far too many incidences of child abuse occurring in various settings, including the wider family environment of children, childcare or educational institutions, or in the context of new information and communication technologies.
3. The Assembly has thus addressed a number of recommendations to the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe and to the member States on various aspects of the issue, for example Recommendation 1934 (2010) on child abuse in institutions: ensuring full protection of the victims, Resolution 1733 (2010) on reinforcing measures against sex offenders and Resolution 1834 (2011) on combating “child abuse images” through committed, transversal and internationally co-ordinated action. A report on “Fighting ‘child sex tourism’” (Doc. 13152) is due to be debated together with the present report at the Assembly’s April 2013 part-session.
4. However, it is the 2007 Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse (Lanzarote Convention, CETS No. 201) which is going to be the key to ending this scourge. The Lanzarote Convention, opened for signature after five years of preparation (starting after the adoption of Assembly Resolution 1307 (2002) on the sexual exploitation of children: zero tolerance), contains all the measures needed to prevent sexual violence, to protect children and to prosecute the abusers. The convention is open to the 47 member States of the Council of Europe as well as to non-member States and the European Union, and incorporates a solid monitoring mechanism in the form of its Committee of the Parties.
5. The Lanzarote Convention is the most advanced and comprehensive legally binding instrument at international level on the protection of children against sexual exploitation and sexual abuse: it is the first time that an international treaty defines and criminalises sexual abuse of children in such a comprehensive manner, including new forms of sexual abuse (“grooming”, etc.) and based on clear definitions of terms such as “child”, “sexual exploitation”, “sexual abuse” and “victim”. A landmark Council of Europe modern “5 Ps” convention, it contains provisions to:
  • prevent and combat sexual exploitation and sexual abuse of children;
  • protect the rights of the child and provide assistance to victims of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse;
  • prosecute the perpetrators;
  • promote appropriate policies and national and international co-operation against this phenomenon;
  • ensure child participation.
6. It is because the Council of Europe realised that its best opportunity to end sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children was in the form of a campaign which would not only raise awareness of the phenomenon, but would primarily promote the Lanzarote Convention, that the Council of Europe ONE in FIVE Campaign to stop sexual violence against children was launched in Rome on 29-30 November 2010. Uniting the various organs and bodies of the Council of Europe, the campaign is run at intergovernmental, parliamentary, regional and local levels. To date, around 25 countries are involved in campaigning, in close co-operation with all stakeholders, including parliaments, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), institutions such as children’s commissioners and ombudspersons, and others.
7. The ONE in FIVE Campaign – a statistic which refers to the sad fact that about one in five children in Europe are a victim of some form of sexual violence – is scheduled to run for a total of four years. The time is now right to conduct a mid-term review of the campaign, in order to celebrate its achievements and to learn from good practices and increase the campaign’s impact even further in the remaining two years. The aims of the campaign are twofold:
7.1 to achieve further signatures, ratifications and implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse;
7.2 to equip children, their families/carers and society at large with the knowledge and tools to prevent and report sexual violence against children, thereby raising awareness of the extent of it.
8. The working methods of the campaign are based on uniting the stakeholders at all levels to focus on these two common aims. This is achieved by having three dimensions at European level, respectively run by the Council of Europe Programme “Building a Europe for and with children” (responsible for the intergovernmental level and for the co-ordination of the overall campaign), by the Parliamentary Assembly, and by the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities. The campaign also builds on the support of the leadership of the Council of Europe’s various organs and bodies, such as the President of the Parliamentary Assembly, the Deputy Secretary General of the Council of Europe and the Thematic Co-ordinator on Children of the Committee of Ministers. Furthermore, the monitoring mechanism of the Lanzarote Convention – the Lanzarote Committee of Parties – is an important element contributing to the success of the campaign.

2 The three dimensions of the campaign – united we stand

9. The biggest success of the campaign is arguably the number of ratifications of the Lanzarote Convention, which reached 25 in March 2013, that is more than half of all Council of Europe member States. But the (less easily measurable) effect of the awareness-raising activities in 25 countries in the first two years of the campaign should also not be underestimated.

2.1 Intergovernmental and national level: Building a Europe for and with children

10. At international level, the campaign is co-ordinated through the Council of Europe Programme “Building a Europe for and with Children”. Support for the development of the campaign at national level is provided by the co-ordination unit responsible for carrying through the strategic objectives of the Programme and includes: guidance and support for Council of Europe national campaign partners; authorisation to use the campaign material, campaign logo, etc; assistance in the production of awareness-raising material in the national language(s); and support for legislative reform and harmonising national legislation with the convention’s provisions. The Programme also runs the official campaign websiteNote (which features the campaign’s three dimensions, background information and the latest campaign news and resources). It provides the Secretariat of the “Lanzarote Committee”, the Committee of the Parties of the Lanzarote Convention set up to monitor its implementation, which is one of the major strengths of the convention.
11. In fact, the intergovernmental sector was at the origin of the campaign. The official launch was held on 29 and 30 November 2010 in Rome. The Italian Ministry of Equal Opportunities hosted the event, attended by European members of governments, international organisations, parliamentarians, local authorities, non-governmental organisations and civil society, complemented by committed experts from fields that are crucial to the campaign's success. The launch received widespread media coverage. Strong political messages were conveyed from the attendees during this two-day event, including the voices of young people, who offered their own perspective on preventing and disclosing child sexual abuse.
12. At the launch event, the material and tools produced for the campaign were unveiled, in particular “The Underwear Rule” material which was developed to prevent sexual abuse by encouraging dialogue between parents and children. The material, centred around a book aimed at young children called “Kiko and the hand”, also includes a website (www.underwearrule.org), a TV spot, posters and postcards. All of this material is currently available for downloading in Czech, Dutch, English, French, Italian, Russian, Serbian and Spanish (it also exists in Catalan, Maltese and Romanian), and the TV spot has been translated into 36 languages.Note
13. Other campaign materials include the ONE in FIVE Campaign poster and postcards (translated into 27 languages), a publication on many aspects of sexual violence “Protecting children from sexual violence – A comprehensive approach” (2010), material prepared by the Parliamentary Assembly and the Congress to assist parliamentarians and local/regional politicians in campaigning (also available in a number of languages on the website). A song “Stop the silence” has also been dedicated to the campaign by the Serbian musician Aleksandra Kovac, which now exists in Serbian, English and Italian. On the occasion of Universal Children’s Day on 20 November 2012, the Council of Europe launched a television and web documentary “Keep me safe”. This documentary illustrates good practices taking place in different member States through prevention, education and protection of victims, and through promoting child-friendly justice.Note
14. At the 10th meeting of the contact parliamentarians in Moscow on 20 November 2012, Ms Anica Djamić, the Committee of Ministers' Thematic Co-ordinator on Children, recounted that she regularly informed the Committee of Ministers of progress made since the launch of the campaign and also about implementation of the Strategy for the Rights of the Child. With regard to the key goal of the campaign – signature and ratification of the Lanzarote Convention – in two years there had been two signatures and 13 additional ratifications of the convention, while in 18 States campaigning was under way for its signature, ratification or implementation. Some countries were running public awareness campaigns and eight were planning to do so.
15. In fact, only one country has yet to sign the Lanzarote Convention: the Czech Republic. In the Czech Republic, where a national ONE in FIVE Campaign has already been launched, the competent ministries appear divided. The Latvian Justice Minister, Mr Janis Bordans, signed the convention on 7 March 2013 after having secured the support of the Latvian Cabinet of Ministers, following a call to do so from the parliament’s Social and Labour Affairs Committee and the Latvian parliamentary delegation to the Parliamentary Assembly.
16. Twenty-one signatory States still need to ratify the Lanzarote Convention. In many of these States, the parliamentary work to incorporate legislative amendments before ratification has begun. In other States, ratification bills are already making their way through the parliamentary process (which can take some time, in particular in federally organised States).
17. The monitoring mechanism of the Lanzarote Convention (on which the Parliamentary Assembly has a seat without voting rights) held its first meeting in September 2011. It will hold its fourth meeting on 21 and 22 March 2013 in Strasbourg, with a view to adopting a questionnaire which will be used by States to provide information on how the convention is being implemented in their country. The drafts discussed by the Lanzarote Committee at its third meeting provided both for a stock-taking questionnaire (which can also be used subsequently as a base-line to assess progress in implementation in member States) and for a first thematic monitoring round on “sexual abuse of children in the circle of trust”. The interpretation of the “circle of trust” by the competent expert, Robert R. Spano (Professor and Dean, Faculty of Law, University of Iceland) – who presented his interesting concept to the contact parliamentarians at their 10th meeting in Moscow in November 2012 –, being rather broad, the Lanzarote Committee will have to be vigilant to ensure that the answers of the States Parties are comprehensive and go into the necessary depth.
18. For the countries which have ratified the convention, implementation is now key. Usually, a country’s legislation will already have been brought into conformity with the provisions of the Lanzarote Convention during the ratification process (although there may be exceptions). In the spirit of Article 38 of the Lanzarote Convention, on international co-operation, the Lanzarote Committee will also have the role of gathering examples of good practice. Since the Committee is only just finalising the questionnaire on which it will base this work, it is currently too early to give information on how State Parties are complying with the convention.
19. However, it is already clear that multi-stakeholder involvement is key. As regards the campaign, some good practice examples have already been featured in various campaign material (for example in the recent web and television documentary “Keep me safe from sexual violence” mentioned above, in the Handbook for parliamentarians, or in the parliamentary newsletters). Thus, NGOs and ombudsperson/child commissioner institutions are involved in the campaign: for example, the Maltese Commissioner for Children is the campaign partner at national level. At her initiative, all school entry-level children were provided with a Maltese adaptation of the Kiko book and all primary schools received a copy for their libraries.
20. The current President of the Assembly, Mr Jean-Claude Mignon, devoted 2012’s “Children’s parliament” in his home town of Dammarie-les-Lys (where he is also Mayor) to the campaign. The Director of UNICEF’s CEE/CIS Regional Office and the Deputy Secretary General of the Council of Europe agreed to co-operate in promoting the ONE in FIVE Campaign in an exchange of letters of July 2012. In Cyprus and Iceland, there has been awareness-raising in schools, and national helplines have appeared on ONE in FIVE Campaign TV spots in Armenia and Georgia. The Oak Foundation supports campaigns run in eastern Europe and supported the University of Bedfordshire (United Kingdom) which conducted a desktop review “Challenging sexual violence in Europe: using participatory methods with children” (2012). Further work will continue in 2013 in training teachers under the Pestalozzi Programme, as well as using the Handbook for teachers devised by a Spanish NGO, and work will continue in combating sexual violence against children in the domain of sport together with the Council of Europe’s sports sector.
21. The role of international co-operation in tackling sexual violence against children is also important. An international conference took place on the second anniversary of the campaign launch in Rome on 29-30 November 2012 in order to identify and promote new approaches and strategies.

2.2 Parliamentary dimension: Parliaments united in combating sexual violence against children

22. When adopting Recommendation 1934 (2010) on 5 October 2010 on “Child abuse in institutions: ensuring full protection of the victims”, the Assembly resolved to develop the parliamentary dimension of the campaign. In the last two years, the Assembly has set up a Network of contact parliamentarians (with currently 53 members)Note under the banner of “Parliaments united in combating sexual violence against children”, which has already held 11 meetings and adopted two declarations. The Assembly has also inspired and supported numerous actions in and by national parliaments and by parliamentarians in this framework.
23. To support the key goal of promoting the signature, ratification and implementation of the Lanzarote Convention, the Assembly has published a Handbook for parliamentarians on the convention as a practical tool to help parliamentarians better understand and promote it. The Handbook (currently available in English, French, German, Romanian, Russian and Spanish, and soon to be published in Azeri) highlights the sensitive issues which need to be tackled through national legislation. A short leaflet on the parliamentary dimension of the campaign has also been published, as well as a compendium of activities and good practices implemented in 2011 and 2012 by the Assembly and by the Network of contact parliamentarians involved in the campaign.Note A newsletter is published four times a year with updates on the parliamentary dimension of the campaign on the occasion of Assembly part-sessions (eight newsletters have been published so far).
24. The Network of contact parliamentarians (ably chaired by the current Chairperson of the Committee on Social Affairs, Health and Sustainable Development, Ms Liliane Maury Pasquier) is the backbone of the parliamentary dimension, allowing its members to exchange good practice and hear expert presentations on key features of the Lanzarote Convention. During its 11 meetings so far, the Network has tackled the following subjects, drawing on expertise from the other dimensions of the campaign, the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights and outside experts and activists:
  • sexual abuse of children with mental disabilities;
  • child sexual abuse in the circle of trust;
  • fighting against sexual violence: empowering children;
  • the obligation to report suspected sexual violence against children;
  • the means to redress and eliminate sexual violence against children;
  • preventing sexual violence against children;
  • combating “child sex tourism”;
  • combating “grooming” (solicitation of children through the Internet for sexual purposes);
  • combating “child pornography” on the Internet.Note
25. The national parliament has an important “watchdog” and monitoring role to play in overseeing the effective implementation of the convention at national level. The creation of a parliamentary committee on children’s rights can be very useful in this respect. The preliminary results of a parliamentary research study that the Assembly has commissioned through the European Centre for Parliamentary Research and Documentation (ECPRD) indicate that of 28 replies by member States (plus three by observer States), 10 parliaments have a specific committee.
26. At the level of the Parliamentary Assembly, the Sub-Committee on Children of the Social, Health and Family Affairs Committee (and its Chairperson, Carina Ohlsson from Sweden) made a significant contribution to European campaign events and co-ordination in 2011. This role was delegated to the newly created post of General Rapporteur on Children of the Parliamentary Assembly in 2012 (the first General Rapporteur, Ms Marlene Rupprecht from Germany, put a particular emphasis on participation in Lanzarote Committee meetings).

2.3 Local and regional dimension: An action plan and a pact of towns and regions

27. Local and regional authorities have a key responsibility, along with national governments, to protect and promote citizens’ human rights, which includes safeguarding and promoting the safety and welfare of children and young people. The services that are needed to help victims of sexual violence and abuse are provided, in the main, at the local level. This is also the level where preventive, awareness-raising measures and assistance can be most effective. Local and regional authorities are therefore on the frontline of the fight to stop sexual violence against children and must develop and implement action plans and strategies to deal with current cases and prevent new ones.
28. With this in mind, the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of the Council of Europe approved a Strategic Action Plan in 2011 which aims to raise awareness of the ONE in FIVE Campaign’s aims among Congress members, local and regional authorities, as well as national associations of local and regional authorities. It also hopes to encourage local and regional authorities to launch their own campaigns and to adopt a multi-stakeholder approach, as proposed by the Lanzarote Convention.
29. The main tool the Congress is using to achieve these aims is its Pact of Towns and Regions to Stop Sexual Violence against Children, endorsed by the Congress Bureau in 2012. The Pact contains a list of initiatives, such as the ones detailed in the Lanzarote Convention, which local and regional authorities may take; these initiatives are organised according to the four-pronged approach of Prevention, Protection, Prosecution and Participation. As, in these times of economic and financial crisis, many local authorities are seeing their resources cut, the list includes initiatives requiring very little if any public spending, as well as others which will necessitate substantial investment because of the need to define specific strategies and set up dedicated structures.
30. The Congress is urging as many towns and regions as possible to commit to the ONE in FIVE Campaign by signing up for the Pact. A specific programme of awareness raising was launched in 2013 and a “Pact Platform” has been set up on the Congress’s ONE in FIVE website,Note where towns and regions can sign up and provide information on what they are doing in the fight to stop sexual violence against children. This Platform will also serve as a database of good practices. It is due to be launched during the Congress’ 24th session (19-21 March 2013).
31. Two other awareness-raising activities were organised by the Congress in 2012 for different audiences: information on the Pact was given to national associations of local and regional authorities, a major partner for the Congress in raising visibility of its activities; and examples of the types of initiatives and structures listed in the Pact were examined during a seminar organised for Congress members and other interested parties. The seminar allowed for an exchange of views among local and regional authorities and presentation of such initiatives as the Zagreb Centre for Child Protection (Croatia) and the Engage multi-agency team in Blackburn with Darwen (United Kingdom).
32. While many measures advocated by the Lanzarote Convention will have to be transposed into criminal and civil laws, some crucial issues in the field of child protection may come under the remit of regions, such as the regulation and organisation of welfare, social and health services and the adoption of specific measures and structures to prevent and protect children from sexual exploitation and abuse. Congress Resolution 350 (2012) and Recommendation 332 (2012) on regional action and legislation to combat sexual exploitation and abuse of children, adopted in October 2012, make some relevant recommendations to regions, especially those with legislative powers, and member States.

3 Challenges

33. For all its success, the ONE in FIVE Campaign has faced several challenges – some of which still continue today. The first – and possibly most difficult and enduring one – is how to run a successful campaign on a shoestring budget. The Council of Europe has come under increasing budgetary pressure, coupled with targets to reduce a staff/activity ratio perceived as unbalanced by some member States. Since campaigning is by definition a staff-intensive activity, and it has proven practically impossible to finance staff reinforcement for the campaign from the ordinary budget, permanent staff members in the intergovernmental sector, the Assembly and the Congress have had to devote considerable chunks of their working time to campaigning – amongst many competing priorities.Note
34. It is only thanks to the generous voluntary contribution of the German Government in 2011, and of the Parliaments of Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Finland, Hungary, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, the Russian Federation and Switzerland, and the Governments of Andorra, Finland, Germany and Liechtenstein in 2012, that the campaign has managed to maintain its dynamic parliamentary dimension. The Parliamentary Assembly hopes to continue to raise enough funds to continue its campaign work until it comes to an end in November 2014, but other dimensions – in particular the local and regional one, which urgently needs strengthening – may not succeed in the same way. The Committee of Ministers should be encouraged to “put its money where its mouth is”, and allocate sufficient funds from the ordinary budget to all dimensions of the campaign until November 2014, including the necessary staff resources – and sufficient funds for the Lanzarote Committee thereafter, to ensure meaningful monitoring.
35. Another big challenge has been breaking the taboo on sexual violence against children in many countries. Due to different cultural sensitivities and traditions, not all campaign material and good practice is successful in all member States. Something which constitutes a good practice in one member State (such as confidential preventive treatment for persons fearing they may become sexual offenders in Germany) may not be easily transferable to another, especially as legal systems differ significantly and mentalities change only slowly.
36. The campaign has already covered a lot of ground in the past two years, but many challenging issues remain to be treated, such as peer-to-peer sexual violence (in particular amongst adolescents), sexual abuse in sports, effective treatment (both preventive and after-the-fact) of sexual offenders which is consistent with European human rights standards… this list is not exhaustive. I also believe that we urgently need to develop – and widely disseminate – campaign material for adolescents (perhaps a short video clip which can be shared via social media?). Indeed, I think it would also be useful for the campaign to have its own dedicated Facebook page, and possibly even a Twitter account.
37. The final challenge will come after the campaign has ended in November 2014: how can we keep up the momentum of the campaign to ensure that progress continues to be made regarding the ratification and implementation of the Lanzarote Convention without an official campaign? Of course, parliamentarians can keep up the pressure on their governments to sign and ratify (for example through parliamentary questions), and can also ensure that adequate legislation is passed for its implementation, and can influence the budgetary resources which are devoted to fighting sexual violence against children at national level. But will this be enough?

4 Conclusions and recommendations: stepping up the campaign’s outreach and effectiveness

38. While the Council of Europe can rightly be proud of the achievements of the first two years of campaigning, I believe it is possible to step up the campaign’s outreach and effectiveness even further. We must not rest on our laurels, but strive to meet the ultimate aim of the campaign: that all member States in Europe (and other States beyond) are not only Party to the Lanzarote Convention, but also implement its provisions and develop an array of awareness-raising measures, be it in the form of a campaign or other – so that the shameful number of ONE in FIVE becomes a much, much smaller one.
39. First, I believe that adequate financing from the ordinary budget of the Council of Europe (first for the three dimensions of the campaign until its end in November 2014, then for the Lanzarote Committee), including for related staff expenditure, is a precondition for success at European level. In this way, more time can be invested in carrying out the real objectives of the campaign and ensuring that the campaign does not become too “donor-driven”.
40. Second, I believe that the key to success in the fight against sexual violence against children is a multi-stakeholder approach at all levels. Thus, I would like to see increased co-operation between the different tiers of government at national level, but also full involvement of parliaments, NGOs, ombudsperson/child commissioner institutions, academia and children, young people and parents themselves. This co-operation should go beyond mere dialogue and include concrete measures with an impact on the ground. The plight of victims, who are often cut off from legal avenues to seek redress because of statutes of limitations and/or lack of sufficient evidence which would stand up in a criminal court, should be given particular attention. Financial compensation – at least in a symbolic form – should also be considered.
41. Third and last, I believe that we need to tackle all the issues related to sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children, however difficult, sensitive or painful some of them are. We must not allow ourselves to become complacent just because our country has signed and/or ratified the Lanzarote Convention; do our laws really stand the test? Are they correctly implemented? Is there some good practice in another country which we can learn from and which can help us progress that bit more towards preventing sexual violence against children, protecting and helping the victims, and successfully prosecuting the perpetrators? That “bit more” could save a child from an awful fate.
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