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Application of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

Biennial Report by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe to the Parliamentary Assembly

Communication | Doc. 13993 | 02 March 2016

Author(s):
Secretary General

Contents

1 Introduction

The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML, ETS No. 148, hereafter referred to as “the Charter”) is the only legally binding instrument in the world for the protection and promotion of traditionally used regional and minority languages. Maintaining regional and minority languages requires using them in all spheres of private and public life. Based on the principle “promotion through use”, the Charter places legal obligations on its States Parties to ensure and promote the effective use of regional and minority languages in education, justice, administration and public services, media, cultural activities and facilities, economic and social life, and transfrontier co-operation. The application of the Charter is monitored by an independent Committee of Experts.

The Charter was opened for signature on 5 November 1992 and entered into force on 1 March 1998. To date, it has been ratified by the following 25 States: Armenia, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Liechtenstein, Luxemburg, Montenegro, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine and the United Kingdom. In these States, the Charter protects and promotes 79 languages used by 203 national minorities/linguistic groups.Note A further eight States have signed the Charter.Note Six States have committed themselves to ratification when joining the Council of Europe but have not yet done so (Albania, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova, the Russian Federation and “the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”).

In accordance with Article 16 (5) of the Charter, the Secretary General of the Council of Europe is required to present a two-yearly report to the Parliamentary Assembly on the application of the Charter. This eighth Biennial Report covers the years 2014 and 2015.Note

During this period, the monitoring of the application of the Charter has identified new positive impact of the Charter on the legal status and actual situation of regional and minority languages in Europe, but also persisting challenges of States Parties in complying with the treaty (see Part I). Furthermore, member States have received assistance with regard to the application of the Charter (Part I) and its ratification (Part II). At the same time, the Committee of Experts of the Charter has demonstrated its rapid reaction capacity during the crisis in Ukraine (Part III) and closely coordinated its work with other monitoring mechanisms (Part IV).

2 Monitoring the Application of the Charter in States Parties

The Committee of Experts has reached important milestones with the completion of the 6th monitoring cycle for some States and the holding of its 50th meeting from 17 to 20 March 2015. To mark the anniversary meeting, a commemorative event took place on 17 March 2015 allowing representatives of Council of Europe bodies (Committee of Ministers, Parliamentary Assembly, Congress of Local and Regional Authorities), monitoring mechanisms (Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, European Commission against Racism and Intolerance/ECRI), experts, “founding fathers” of the Charter and co-operation partners such as the European Centre for Minority Issues (ECMI) to take stock of achievements and identify trends and challenges in the protection and promotion of regional and minority languages in Europe. Furthermore, the Committee of Experts published a bibliography on the Charter and a compilation of examples of good practice in the implementation of the Charter at national level.

The Charter’s monitoring procedure includes several stages: submission of a three-yearly State report, on-the-spot visit of the Committee of Experts to the State concerned, submission of statements (“shadow reports“) by NGOs, adoption of the evaluation report by the Committee of Experts and subsequent submission to the national authorities for comments, transmission of the evaluation report and State comments to the Committee of Ministers, adoption of the Committee of Ministers Recommendation and publication of the evaluation report.

In 2014 and 2015, the Committee of Ministers adopted and made public the following recommendations relating to the respective evaluation reports of the Committee of Experts:Note

  • 15 January 2014, Ukraine, Recommendation CM/RecChL(2014)1, second evaluation report
  • 15 January 2014, Armenia, Recommendation CM/RecChL(2014)2, third evaluation report
  • 15 January 2014, United Kingdom, Recommendation CM/RecChL(2014)3, fourth evaluation report
  • 16 April 2014, Slovenia, Recommendation CM/RecChL(2014)4, fourth evaluation report
  • 28 May 2014, Germany, Recommendation CM/RecChL(2014)5, fifth evaluation report
  • 12 September 2014, Liechtenstein, no Recommendation adopted, sixth evaluation report
  • 24 October 2014, Cyprus, Recommendation CM/RecChL(2014)7, fourth evaluation report
  • 24 October 2014, Denmark, Recommendation CM/RecChL(2014)6, fourth evaluation report
  • 14 January 2015, Sweden, Recommendation CM/RecChL(2015)1, fifth evaluation report
  • 15 April 2015, Croatia, Recommendation CM/RecChL(2015)2, fifth evaluation report
  • 12 May 2015, Montenegro, Recommendation CM/RecChL(2015)3, third evaluation report
  • 15 September 2015, Norway, Recommendation CM/RecChL(2015)4, sixth evaluation report
  • 4 November 2015, Luxemburg, no Recommendation adopted, fourth evaluation report
  • 1 December 2015, Czech Republic, Recommendation CM/RecChL(2015)5, third evaluation report
  • 1 December 2015, Poland, Recommendation CM/RecChL(2015)6, second evaluation report.

The recommendations that the Committee of Ministers has addressed to the States Parties have in most cases corresponded to the proposals made by the Committee of Experts in its evaluation reports.

The Committee of Ministers is encouraged to follow, as it has done in most cases since 2001, the proposals of the Committee of Experts in order to strengthen the monitoring mechanism.

In order to continue its dialogue with the Committee of Ministers, the Chair of the Committee of Experts was invited to an exchange of views with the Committee of Ministers’ Rapporteur Group on Legal Co-operation (GR-J) at its meeting on 18 June 2015. In turn, the Committee of Experts invited the Chair of the GR-J for an exchange of views at its 52nd meeting on 3 November 2015.

The evaluation reports of the Committee of Experts have shown that the Charter and its monitoring mechanism continue to have a positive impactNote on the situation of regional or minority languages in Europe. In Croatia, the Charter now also applies to Boyash Romanian, German and Slovenian. In Germany, on the basis of the Charter, an action plan promoting the use of Upper Sorbian in public life has been adopted. Norway has fulfilled most of its undertakings under the Charter regarding North Sami, the largest of the Sami languages. In Sweden, the right to use national minority languages has been enshrined in the Act on National Minorities and National Minority Languages, and funding for these language groups has been increased.

On the other hand, States Parties still face challenges in the application of the Charter. The following overview lists the main challenges identified by the Committee of Ministers and the Committee of Experts in the context of the aforementioned evaluation reports:

  • Armenia should make adequate provisions so that broadcasters offer television programmes in Assyrian, Greek, Kurdish and Yezidi, provide a legal basis for the use of minority languages before courts and public bodies and provide adequate funding to the national minority associations.
  • Croatia should introduce equal and official use of national minority languages in additional municipalities and, as its authorities announced to do in 2013, withdraw the reservation to Article 7 (5) of the Charter, which excludes Romani from protection under this treaty.
  • Cyprus should extend the use of Armenian and Cypriot Maronite Arabic in education and the broadcast media.
  • The Czech Republic should intensify efforts in education and the media to promote awareness and tolerance in relation to the Polish, Slovak, German and Roma national minorities, languages and cultures and create favourable societal conditions for the use of German and Romani in public life.
  • Denmark should extend the use of German by authorities and in the broadcast media.
  • Germany should implement a policy for the preservation of Lower Sorbian, make available teaching in/of Lower Sorbian, North Frisian and Sater Frisian and extend the use of these languages and of Danish in the broadcast media.
  • Montenegro should permit the use of Albanian in relations with local branches of the State authorities and ensure the use of Romani in education.
  • Norway should strengthen the presence of Kven/Finnish in education and the broadcast media and increase efforts to provide teaching in/of Lule Sami and South Sami.
  • Poland should make available education in Belarusian, German, Kashub, Lemko and Ukrainian as a medium of instruction at all levels of education and extend the use of the minority languages in the broadcast media and by the authorities.
  • Slovenia should, in the context of recognising the Croatian, German and Serbian national minorities under Article 64 of the Constitution, also recognise the languages of these minorities as traditional (autochthonous) languages in Slovenia and improve the public use of Hungarian and Italian.
  • Sweden should extend bilingual education in Finnish and Sami and introduce it in Meänkieli.
  • Ukraine should ensure that the minority languages can be used in the field of administration in practice, including regarding place names, provide for teaching in/of these languages at all levels and extend the use of minority languages on radio and television.
  • The United Kingdom should adopt and implement a comprehensive Irish language policy, preferably through the adoption of legislation providing statutory rights for the Irish speakers, continue taking measures to strengthen Scottish Gaelic education and take concrete steps to further increase the use of Welsh in health and social care.

The Council of Europe supports States in the implementation of the Charter and the monitoring recommendations through capacity building events. Charter Implementation Roundtables are attended by representatives of the national minorities and the national authorities, and moderated by a member of the Committee of Experts. They aim at agreeing on concrete steps for the implementation of the recommendations made by the Committee of Experts and the Committee of Ministers.

In April 2014, a Charter Implementation Roundtable took place in Bratislava (Slovak Republic). Both the representatives of the national minorities and the authorities commended the roundtable, as it had been the first meeting dedicated specifically to the preparation of a roadmap for the implementation of the Charter. Germany organised implementation conferences in November 2014 and November 2015. An implementation meeting was also organised at the request of the authorities of Bosnia and Herzegovina in January 2015. In September 2015, associations of the German and Serbian national minorities in Slovenia submitted a joint “20 Point Plan” on the application of the Charter to the Slovenian authorities and the Council of Europe, proposing inter alia for the holding of regular Charter Implementation Roundtables in that country.

States Parties are encouraged to hold Charter Implementation Roundtables and similar follow-up activities with a view to ensuring the full implementation of the Charter and institutionalising dialogue with the national minorities concerned.

3 Assistance to States preparing Ratification of the Charter

The Council of Europe is the leading international organisation worldwide in the field of legally-binding standards for the protection of national minorities and the promotion of regional or minority languages. The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (FCNM) and the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) are frames of reference for the European Union (EU), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and the United Nations (UN) whose Universal Periodic Review/UPR regularly refers to monitoring recommendations concerning the Charter.

Given this international recognition, it is regrettable and of concern that no additional State has ratified or signed the Charter and the Framework Convention during the last two years. There is a clear need to fill the “territorial gaps” in the protection of national minorities and their languages throughout Europe.

Non-States Parties should bear in mind that the flexibility created by the Charter’s à la carte approach permits to devise tailored solutions for specific concerns they may have in relation to ratification. The Council of Europe stands ready to provide legal expertise to the preparation of the instruments of ratification with a view to addressing those perceived obstacles to ratification.

Assistance to States preparing ratification (legal advice, capacity building, awareness raising) has been and is being provided in the framework of Council of Europe/EU Joint Programmes (see under 1.3, 1.5 and 2.1 below). In addition to its financial support for Joint Programmes, the EU is raising the issue of pending ratifications in its bilateral relations with States concerned, for example in the Visa Liberalisation Action Plan with Georgia.

The EU is encouraged to continue advocating for ratification of the Charter in the framework of its relations, agreements and action plans with the relevant States.

3.1 States under a post-accession commitment to the Council of Europe to ratify the Charter

Six States that committed themselves to signing and ratifying the Charter when acceding to the Council of Europe have not yet done so. Of these, Albania and Georgia have not even signed the Charter:

Member State

Parliamentary Assembly Opinion

Deadline for signing and ratifying the Charter

Date of signature

Albania

189(1995)

   

Azerbaijan

222(2000)

25/01/2002

21/12/2001

GeorgiaNote

209(1999)

27/04/2000

 

Republic of MoldovaNote

188(1995)

13/07/1996

11/07/2002

Russian Federation

193(1996)

28/02/1998

10/05/2001

“the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”

191(1995)

09/11/1996

25/07/1996

Considering the deadlines for signing and ratifying the Charter agreed at the time of accession, the States concerned are strongly encouraged to make all the necessary efforts so that the ratification process can be completed without further delay.

The Parliamentary Assembly is invited to intensify its monitoring of post-accession commitments in these cases.

In the States concerned, the state of play concerning ratification is currently as follows:

3.1.1 Albania

In April 2014, representatives of the Albanian authorities and Council of Europe experts met in Tirana to discuss about a preliminary draft ratification instrument. On that occasion, the authorities announced to establish a working group on reforming Albania’s national minority legislation which would also make recommendations concerning the ratification of the Charter.

3.1.2 Azerbaijan

The Charter Secretariat in May 2015 proposed to the Azerbaijani authorities to set up an inter-ministerial working group on the ratification of the Charter and, already prior to ratification, to simulate the application of the Charter in pilot municipalities. This proposal is still being examined by the authorities.

3.1.3 Georgia

In June 2013, further to a request for expert support by the Georgian authorities, the Georgian high-level inter-ministerial commission on the Charter and Council of Europe experts prepared a draft instrument of ratification.Note In order to further prepare the signature and ratification of the Charter and to facilitate its subsequent implementation, the joint Council of Europe/EU project “Civic Integration of National Minorities in Georgia and the ECRML” (2015-2016) was included in the Council of Europe Action Plan for Georgia (2013-2015). Awareness-raising activities carried out in its framework in 2015 confirmed the strong support by the national minorities for the ratification of the Charter. However, the Georgian government still does not show the necessary political will to sign the treaty and to initiate the actual ratification procedure. Further to the comprehensive legal advice received and the awareness-raising activities carried out, Georgia is strongly encouraged to sign and ratify the Charter in 2016.

3.1.4 Republic of Moldova

In February 2012, a working group comprising representatives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Culture, State Chancellery, national minorities, and Moldovan as well as Council of Europe experts prepared a draft ratification instrument. This documentNote contains the selected Charter provisions that the Moldovan authorities intend to apply to the Bulgarian, Ukrainian, Gagauz, German, Polish, Romani, Russian and Yiddish languages.Note However, following inter-ministerial consultations, the authorities later in 2012 “decided to suspend the ratification of the Charter“Note and the related co-operation with the Council of Europe. Since that time, the authorities have carried out additional consultations with representatives of national minorities with a view to finalising the list of Charter provisions to be included in the ratification instrument in relation to the eight aforementioned languages. The Republic of Moldova is strongly encouraged to resume the co-operation with the Council of Europe on the preparation of ratification and to consider capacity building activities, for example the simulated application of the Charter in pilot municipalities prior to ratification.

3.1.5 Russian Federation

In the framework of the Council of Europe/EU Joint Programme “Minorities in Russia: Developing Languages, Culture, Media and Civil Society” (2009-2012), a joint working group examined a proposal for a draft instrument of ratification prepared by Council of Europe experts and published afterwards.Note The Russian Federation is encouraged to continue the co-operation with the Council of Europe on the basis of the results of the Joint Programme.

3.1.6 “The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”

“The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” has not taken any additional steps to prepare ratification of the Charter.

The implementation of Joint Programmes could certainly help Albania, Azerbaijan, the Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation and “the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” to comply with their post-accession commitments to the Council of Europe to ratify the Charter.

3.2 Other non-States Parties to the Charter

3.2.1 Belarus

Pursuant to Article 20 (1) of the Charter, "the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe may invite any State not a member of the Council of Europe to accede to this Charter". As Belarus has expressed an interest in examining the possible accession to Council of Europe treaties in the field of national minority protection, the Council of Europe/EU Eastern Partnership Programmatic Co-operation Framework (PCF) 2015-2017 comprises the action “Facilitating accession to the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) in Belarus”. Its main aim is to assist Belarus in examining legal scenarios for the country’s accession to the Charter.

3.2.2 France

The ratification of the Charter, which France signed in 1999, was part of President François Hollande’s commitments during the presidential election campaign. In January 2014, with a large majority, the National Assembly adopted a constitutional amendment permitting ratification of the treaty. Regrettably, the Senate rejected this amendment in October 2015. During the ratification debate, however, the government reiterated that certain Charter provisions already, prior to ratification, comply with the French legal order and may constitute the basis of a public policy promoting regional languages. On this basis, in 2014 and 2015 several regional and local authorities decided to apply selected Charter provisions falling into their competences. Such initiatives promote regional languages on the basis of Charter standards and build capacity for the future implementation of the Charter in France. In addition, they can serve as a model for other countries wishing to “pilot” or simulate the application of the Charter prior to ratification (see under 1.2 and 1.4).

3.2.3 Italy

Italy signed the Charter in 2000. In 2014, three draft laws on ratification were examined by the Constitutional Affairs Committee and the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Chamber of Deputies. They are expected to be examined by the Senate at the beginning of 2016. Bearing in mind that Italy is currently the State in Europe that is closest to ratification, the Italian Senate is strongly encouraged to endorse the draft laws in 2016.

3.2.4 Lithuania

In 2013, Lithuania, which has not yet signed the Charter, organised a parliamentary hearing on its possible ratification. Following this event, the Lithuanian authorities envisaged the establishment of an inter-ministerial working group tasked to initiate the ratification process. However, the implementation of this plan is pending.

The Council of Europe has no information about any steps taken towards ratification of the Charter by Andorra, Belgium, Bulgaria, Estonia, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Latvia, Malta, Monaco, Portugal, San Marino or Turkey.

Member States on whose territory no regional or minority languages are used are invited to follow the example of Liechtenstein and Luxemburg and ratify the Charter as an act of solidarity, as recommended by the Committee of Ministers in 2015.Note

4 Rapid Reaction Capacity

In the 2014 report on the “State of democracy, human rights and the rule of law in Europe”, the Secretary General recommended to increase the capacity of Council of Europe monitoring bodies to respond faster to emergency situations with a view to improving the Organisation’s effectiveness in such cases.Note

The Committee of Experts of the Charter demonstrated this capacity during the crisis in Ukraine. On 28 February 2014, the Permanent Representative of Ukraine to the Council of Europe sent a letter to the Secretary General asking him to examine whether inter alia the Committee of Experts could verify that all rights of national minorities in Ukraine, including linguistic rights, were duly protected and respected. Further to this request, which underlined the geopolitical importance of the Charter, the Bureau of the Committee of Experts decided to reassess the second evaluation report on UkraineNote and to submit to the Secretary General on 25 March 2014 an ad-hoc report reviewing the situation of national minority languages in Ukraine.Note The Secretary General has presented the findings of this report to the Committee of Ministers. Furthermore, on 16 May 2014, the Committee of Experts adopted a statement on UkraineNote, expressing particular concern over the situation of the national minority languages traditionally used in Crimea.

In September 2014, the Committee of Experts amended its Rules of Procedure, inserting a provision on ad-hoc missions. This new Article 19 confirms that members of the Committee of Experts may, at the request of the Committee of Ministers or the Secretariat General, participate in ad-hoc missions, including missions carried out as a rapid reaction to significant changes in the policies, legislation or practice of a State which might have a negative effect on the promotion of regional or minority languages.

In August 2015, the City of Vukovar/Вуковар (Croatia) decided not to provide bilingual (Croatian/Serbian) signs at official institutions and streets of the city (see also under IV.2 below). As a reaction to this controversial decision, the Committee of Experts in November 2015 reviewed the application of the Charter by Croatia between two monitoring cycles. Furthermore, the Committee of Experts decided to follow the situation in Croatia continuously until the end of the monitoring cycle and to enter into a dialogue with the Croatian authorities about this matter.

These measures show that the Committee of Experts is able and willing to respond rapidly to emergency situations without prejudice to its core mandate to monitor the application of the Charter at three-yearly intervals.

5 Co-operation

5.1 Co-operation with related monitoring mechanisms in the Council of Europe

As in previous years, the Secretary General has met with the chairpersons of the Council of Europe’s monitoring and advisory bodies. The meetings held in December 2014 and November 2015 focused inter alia on co-operation between related (“kin”) monitoring mechanisms, including the Committee of Experts of the Charter and the Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.

Both mechanisms and the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) have pursued their coordination during the reporting period and jointly organised, or attended, events increasing their visibility. In November 2014, the European Committee for Social Cohesion, Human Dignity and Equality (CDDECS) in co-operation with the three monitoring mechanisms, organised the conference “Sami – The people, their culture and languages and the Council of Europe” in Inari, Finland. In addition, the chairpersons of the Committee of Experts and the Advisory Committee attended the international conference on ”Minority Protection at a Crossroads” in Mariehamn (Åland Islands), Finland, in March 2015. In the same month, both committees were also represented at the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva during the session on Implementing Linguistic Rights, where they jointly organised a side event.

The 50th meeting of the Committee of Experts was preceded by a joint meeting of the Bureaux of the Committee of Experts, the Advisory Committee and ECRI (16 March 2015) which identified a considerable potential for further co-operation in the field of joint assistance (follow-up) activities, including the preparation of a compilation of their monitoring recommendations.

5.2 Promotion and use of regional and minority languages in other Council of Europe activities

In the “Report by the Secretary General on the Review of Council of Europe Conventions”Note, the Charter is classified as a “key convention” of the Organisation. It is therefore natural that, where relevant, the Council of Europe as a whole aims at respecting the standards defined by the Charter, and monitored by the Committee of Experts and the Committee of Ministers, especially in activities concerning areas where regional or minority languages are used.

On the basis of the report on “The situation and rights of traditional national minorities in Europe”, the Parliamentary Assembly in 2014 adopted Recommendation 2040 (2014) and Resolution 1985 (2014). The Committee of Experts provided an Opinion on the draft recommendation, which it adopted on 30 June 2014.Note

The Congress of Local and Regional Authorities has traditionally attached a lot of importance to the promotion of regional and minority languages and the Charter. In October 2015, the Congress devoted a thematic debate to “Regional and minority languages in Europe: recent developments, challenges and good practices”. Considering the slow pace of implementation of the Charter at national level, the Chair of the Committee of Experts called on regional and local authorities to play a more proactive role in promoting regional and minority languages.

The Commissioner for Human Rights has continued to advocate for the implementation of recommendations made in the monitoring mechanism of the Charter and to raise pending ratifications, for example during his visit to Georgia in 2014. Furthermore, the Ad-hoc Committee of Experts on Roma Issues (CAHROM) uses the Romani language during its meetings.

On 21 August 2015, the Council of Europe published a statement which, in line with several recommendations of the Committee of MinistersNote, strongly regretted the removal of official signs in national minority languages through vandalism or pursuant to formal decisions aiming at limiting the presence of such languages in the public. This statement reacted to the decision of the City of Vukovar/Вуковар (Croatia) not to use Serbian in its official signage (see also under III. above). It also mentioned that on 26 April 2015, the Danish/German place name signs of the City of Haderslev/Hadersleben (Denmark), which had been placed further to a recommendation of the Committee of Experts, were destroyed through vandalism and not put in place again.

Moreover, the Secretary General grants patronage to events promoting regional or minority languages, such as the “LIET International” song contest for regional or minority languages and “SUNS Europe” – The European Festival of Performing Arts in Minority Languages.

In turn, the Committee of Experts of the Charter makes active contributions to other transversal policies of the Council of Europe. As a contribution to the Council of Europe Strategy for the Rights of the Child, the Committee of Experts has appointed a Rapporteur on Children’s Rights who published a report on “The protection of children’s rights under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages” in 2014. The Committee of Experts was also represented at the conference “Growing with Children’s Rights” in Dubrovnik (Croatia) in March 2014. In addition, the Committee of Experts appointed a Gender Equality Rapporteur (GER) at its 50th meeting (17-20 March 2015) who participated in an exchange of views with the Council of Europe Gender Equality Commission (GEC) on 18 November 2015.

On 5 November 2015, the Committee of Experts adopted a statement on the occasion of the International Romani Language Day.Note

5.3 Co-operation with other international organisations and institutions

The Committee of Experts of the Charter and its Secretariat co-operate on an ad-hoc basis with other international organisations or institutions. For example, the Chair of the Committee of Experts addressed the European Parliament Intergroup for Traditional Minorities, National Communities and Languages during a debate on Ukraine in April 2014.

In the context of the co-operation of the Council of Europe and the OSCE in the field of national minorities, the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities (HCNM) and the Charter Secretariat exchange information, for example in relation to country-visits by the High Commissioner.

Contacts have also been established with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), which considers the Charter as a frame of reference in its work on indigenous and endangered languages.

The Council of Europe is an institutional partner of the European Centre for Minority Issues (ECMI) in Flensburg (Germany) and has involved ECMI in its assistance activities in Georgia, in the Republic of Moldova and Albania.

6 Conclusion

By placing legal obligations on its States Parties to proactively promote regional or minority languages, the Charter complements national minority legislation often based only on individual rights of persons belonging to national minorities. In spite of the generally positive impact generated by this approach, several States Parties are facing challenges in the application of the Charter. Further efforts must be made to ensure the full implementation of the treaty. In the medium term, the Council of Europe should play a more active role in the actual implementation of Charter provisions and in monitoring recommendations on the ground. Co-operation and assistance programmes addressing the main challenges identified by the Committee of Experts should be made available to all States Parties immediately after the respective evaluation report has been made public. Furthermore, the Council of Europe in general and the Parliamentary Assembly in particular must become more assertive in holding States to their post-accession commitments to ratify the Charter. The recommendations of the Committee of Experts and the Committee of Ministers provide a sound basis for action by members of the Parliamentary Assembly to support the application of the Charter or its ratification with a view to improving the situation of regional or minority languages in Europe.

Appendix 1 – Signatures and ratifications of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, CETS No.: 148

Treaty open for signature by the member States and for accession by non-member States

Opening for signature:

Place: Strasbourg

Date: 5/11/1992

Entry into force:

Conditions: 5 ratifications

Date: 1/3/1998

Status as of: 1/1/2016

Member States of the Council of Europe

States

Signature

Ratification

Entry into force

Notes

R.

D.

A.

T.

C.

O.

Albania

                   

Andorra

                   

Armenia

11/5/2001

25/1/2002

1/5/2002

   

X

       

Austria

5/11/1992

28/6/2001

1/10/2001

   

X

       

Azerbaijan

21/12/2001

       

X

       

Belgium

                   

Bosnia and Herzegovina

7/9/2005

21/9/2010

1/1/2011

   

X

       

Bulgaria

                   

Croatia

5/11/1997

5/11/1997

1/3/1998

 

X

X

       

Cyprus

12/11/1992

26/8/2002

1/12/2002

   

X

       

Czech Republic

9/11/2000

15/11/2006

1/3/2007

   

X

       

Denmark

5/11/1992

8/9/2000

1/1/2001

   

X

   

X

 

Estonia

                   

Finland

5/11/1992

9/11/1994

1/3/1998

   

X

       

France

7/5/1999

       

X

       

Georgia

                   

Germany

5/11/1992

16/9/1998

1/1/1999

   

X

       

Greece

                   

Hungary

5/11/1992

26/4/1995

1/3/1998

   

X

       

Iceland

7/5/1999

                 

Ireland

                   

Italy

27/6/2000

                 

Latvia

                   

Liechtenstein

5/11/1992

18/11/1997

1/3/1998

   

X

       

Lithuania

                   

Luxembourg

5/11/1992

22/6/2005

1/10/2005

             

Malta

5/11/1992

                 

Moldova

11/7/2002

                 

Monaco

                   

Montenegro

22/3/2005

15/2/2006

6/6/2006

56

           

Netherlands

5/11/1992

2/5/1996

1/3/1998

   

X

 

X

   

Norway

5/11/1992

10/11/1993

1/3/1998

   

X

       

Poland

12/5/2003

12/2/2009

1/6/2009

   

X

       

Portugal

                   

Romania

17/7/1995

29/1/2008

1/5/2008

   

X

       

Russia

10/5/2001

                 

San Marino

                   

Serbia

22/3/2005

15/2/2006

1/6/2006

56

 

X

       

Slovakia

20/2/2001

5/9/2001

1/1/2002

   

X

       

Slovenia

3/7/1997

4/10/2000

1/1/2001

   

X

       

Spain

5/11/1992

9/4/2001

1/8/2001

   

X

       

Sweden

9/2/2000

9/2/2000

1/6/2000

   

X

       

Switzerland

8/10/1993

23/12/1997

1/4/1998

   

X

       

“The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”

25/7/1996

                 

Turkey

                   

Ukraine

2/5/1996

19/9/2005

1/1/2006

   

X

       

United Kingdom

2/3/2000

27/3/2001

1/7/2001

   

X

 

X

   

Non-member States of the Council of Europe

States 

Signature 

Ratification 

Entry into force 

Notes 

R. 

D. 

A. 

T. 

C. 

O. 

Total number of signatures not followed by ratifications: 

Total number of ratifications/accessions: 

25 

Notes:

(56) Dates of signature and ratification by the state union of Serbia and Montenegro.

a: Accession – s: Signature without reservation as to ratification – su: Succession – r: Signature "ad referendum".

R.: Reservations – D.: Declarations – A.: Authorities – T.: Territorial Application – C.: Communication – O.: Objection.

Source: Treaty Office on http://conventions.coe.int

Appendix 2 – States Parties to the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages and their regional or minority languages

Status as of: 1 January 2016

State PartyNote

Languages

Level of protection under the Charter (Articles applying to the language concerned)

Armenia

Assyrian

German

Greek

Kurdish

Russian

Ukrainian

Yezidi

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Austria

Burgenlandcroatian

Czech

Hungarian

Romani

Slovakian

Slovenian

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) or Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)*Note

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) or Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)*

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Albanian

Czech

German

Hungarian

Italian

Ladino

Macedonian

Montenegrin

Polish

Romani

Romanian

Ruthenian

Slovakian

Slovenian

Turkish

Ukrainian

Yiddish

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Croatia

Czech

German

Hungarian

Boyash Romanian

Istro-Romanian

Italian

Ruthenian

Serbian

Slovakian

Slovenian

Ukrainian

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Cyprus

Armenian

Cypriot Maronite Arabic

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7)

Czech Republic

Moravian Croatian

German

Polish

Romani

Slovakian

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Denmark

German

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

FinlandNote

Inari Sami

Karelian

North Sami

Romani

Russian

Skolt Sami

Swedish

Tatar

Yiddish

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7.5)

Germany

Danish

Low German

Lower Sorbian

North Frisian

Romani

Sater Frisian

Upper Sorbian

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) or Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)*

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) or Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)*

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Hungary

Armenian

Beás

Bulgarian

Croatian

German

Greek

Polish

Romani

Romanian

Ruthenian

Serbian

Slovakian

Slovenian

Ukrainian

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7.5)

Montenegro

Albanian

Bosnian

Croatian

Romani

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Netherlands

Frisian

Limburgish

Lower Saxon

Romani

Yiddish

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7.5)

Norway

Kven/Finnish

Lule Sami

North Sami

Romani

Eastern/Skolt Sami

South Sami 

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Poland

Armenian

Belarusian

Czech

German

Karaim

Kashub

Lemko

Lithuanian

Romani

Russian

Slovakian

Tatar

Ukrainian

Yiddish

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Romania

Albanian

Armenian

Bulgarian

Croatian

Czech

German

Greek

Hungarian

Italian

Macedonian

Polish

Romani

Russian

Ruthenian

Serbian

Slovakian

Tatar

Turkish

Ukrainian

Yiddish

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Serbia

Albanian

Bosnian

Bulgarian

Bunjevac

Croatian

Czech

German

Hungarian

Macedonian

Romani

Romanian

Ruthenian

Slovakian

Ukrainian

Vlach

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Slovakia

Bulgarian

Croatian

Czech

German

Hungarian

Polish

Romani

Ruthenian

Ukrainian

Yiddish

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Slovenia

Croatian

German

Hungarian

Italian

Romani

Serbian

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7)

Spain

Aragonese

Aranese

Asturian

Basque

Catalan

Galician

Leonese

Valencian

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) or Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)*

Part II (Article 7) or Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)*

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) or Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)*

Sweden

Finnish

Lule Sami

Meänkieli

North Sami

Romani

South Sami

Yiddish

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7.5)

Switzerland

French

German

Italian

Romansh

Yenish

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Ukraine

Belarusian

Bulgarian

Crimean Tatar

Gagauz

German

Greek

Hungarian

Karaim

Krimchak

Moldovan

Polish

Romani

Romanian

Russian

Ruthenian

Slovakian

Yiddish

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

United Kingdom

Cornish

Irish

Manx Gaelic

Scots

Scottish-Gaelic

Ulster-Scots

Welsh

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Appendix 3 – Languages to which the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages applies

Status as of: 1 January 2016

Language

State Party

Level of protection under the Charter (Articles applying to the language concerned)

Albanian

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Montenegro

Romania

Serbia

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Aragonese

Spain

Part II (Article 7)

Aranese

Spain

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Armenian

Cyprus

Hungary

Poland

Romania

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Assyrian

Armenia

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Asturian

Spain

Part II (Article 7)

Basque

Spain

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Beás

Hungary

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Belarusian

Poland

Ukraine

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Bosnian

Montenegro

Serbia

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Bulgarian

Hungary

Romania

Serbia

Slovakia

Ukraine

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Bunjevac

Serbia

Part II (Article 7)

Catalan

Spain

Part II (Article 7) or Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)*Note

Cornish

United Kingdom

Part II (Article 7)

Crimean Tatar

Ukraine

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Croatian

AustriaNote

Czech RepublicNote

Hungary

Montenegro

Romania

Serbia

Slovakia

Slovenia

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Cypriot Maronite Arabic

Cyprus

Part II (Article 7)

Czech

Austria

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Croatia

Poland

Romania

Serbia

Slovakia

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Danish

Germany

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Finnish

Sweden

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

French

Switzerland

Part II (Article 7)

Frisian

Netherlands

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Gagauz

Ukraine

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Galician

Spain

Part II (Article 7) or Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)*

German

Armenia

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Croatia

Czech Republic

Denmark

Hungary

Poland

Romania

Serbia

Slovakia

Slovenia

Switzerland

Ukraine

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Greek

Armenia

Hungary

Romania

Ukraine

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Hungarian

Austria

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Croatia

Romania

Serbia

Slovakia

Slovenia

Ukraine

Part II (Article 7) or Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)*

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Inari Sami

Finland

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Irish

United Kingdom

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Istro-Romanian

Croatia

Part II (Article 7)

Italian

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Croatia

Romania

Slovenia

Switzerland

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Karaim

Poland

Ukraine

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Karelian

Finland

Part II (Article 7.5)

Kashub

Poland

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Krimchak

Ukraine

Part II (Article 7)

Kurdish

Armenia

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Kven/Finnish

Norway

Part II (Article 7)

Ladino

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Lemko

Poland

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Leonese

Spain

Part II (Article 7)

Limburgish

Netherlands

Part II (Article 7)

Lithuanian

Poland

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Low German

Germany

Part II (Article 7) or Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)*

Lower Saxon

Netherlands

Part II (Article 7)

Lower Sorbian

Germany

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Lule Sami

Norway

Sweden

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Macedonian

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Romania

Serbia

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7)

Manx Gaelic

United Kingdom

Part II (Article 7)

Meänkieli

Sweden

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Moldovan

Ukraine

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Montenegrin

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

North Frisian

Germany

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

North Sami

Finland

Norway

Sweden

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Polish

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Czech Republic

Hungary

Romania

Slovakia

Ukraine

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Romani (Romany, Romanes, Romani Chib, Roma language)

Austria

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Czech Republic

Finland

Germany

Hungary

Montenegro

Netherlands

Norway

Poland

Romania

Serbia

Slovakia

Slovenia

Sweden

Ukraine

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7) or Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)*

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7)

Romanian

Bosnia and Herzegovina

CroatiaNote

Hungary

Serbia

Ukraine

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Romansh

Switzerland

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Russian

Armenia

Finland

Poland

Romania

Ukraine

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Ruthenian

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Croatia

Hungary

Romania

Serbia

Slovakia

Ukraine

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Sater Frisian

Germany

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Scots

United Kingdom

Part II (Article 7)

Scottish-Gaelic

United Kingdom

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Serbian

Croatia

Hungary

Romania

Slovenia

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Skolt Sami

Eastern/Skolt Sami

Finland

Norway

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Slovakian

Austria

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Croatia

Czech Republic

Hungary

Poland

Romania

Serbia

Ukraine

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Slovenian

Austria

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Croatia

Hungary

Part II (Article 7) or Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)*

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

South Sami

Norway

Sweden

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Swedish

Finland

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Tatar

Finland

Poland

Romania

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Turkish

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Romania

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Ukrainian

Armenia

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Croatia

Hungary

Poland

Romania

Serbia

Slovakia

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Ulster Scots

United Kingdom

Part II (Article 7)

Upper Sorbian

Germany

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Valencian

Spain

Part II (Article 7) or Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)*

Vlach

Serbia

Part II (Article 7)

Welsh

United Kingdom

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Yenish

Switzerland

Part II (Article 7)

Yezidi

Armenia

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Yiddish

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Finland

Netherlands

Poland

Romania

Slovakia

Sweden

Ukraine

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7)

Part II (Article 7.5)

Part II (Article 7) and Part III (Articles 8-14)

Total: The Charter covers 79 languages …

… used by 203 national minorities or linguistic groups of which …

… 70 benefit from Part II only and 126 from Parts II and III. The languages of 7 linguistic groups belong to both aforementioned categories, depending on the region.

Note: In its Declaration of 30 November 2009, “Finland declare[d], referring to Article 7, paragraph 5, that it undertakes to apply, mutatis mutandis, the principles listed in paragraphs 1 to 4 of the said Article to the Romanes language, to the Karelian language [emphasis in original] and to the other non-territorial languages in Finland.” However, Finland has not designated “the other non-territorial languages in Finland”.

Appendix 4 – Statement by the Committee of Experts of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages on the situation in Ukraine (16 May 2014)

(unanimously adopted by the Committee at its 47th meeting)

The Committee of Experts of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) recalls that the Charter is designed for pluralist and multilingual societies and reiterates that “the protection and promotion of regional or minority languages in the different countries and regions of Europe represent an important contribution to the building of a Europe based on the principles of democracy and cultural diversity within the framework of national sovereignty and territorial integrity” (Preamble of the Charter).

Referring to its evaluation report on the application of the Charter in Ukraine of 15 November 2012 and its reassessment report of 25 March 2014, the Committee recalls that in respect of the Russian language, it had found that most undertakings chosen by Ukraine under the Charter were fulfilled or partly fulfilled. However, as far as the other minority languages are concerned, several of the Charter undertakings still needed to be implemented. This was also the case in Crimea.

Particularly in the current situation in Ukraine, the protection granted by the Charter constitutes an additional European safeguard for minority languages. The Committee of Experts expresses its deep concern for the situation of the minority languages and their users in Crimea. Under the present conditions, Ukraine cannot implement the Charter and consequently the Committee of Experts cannot monitor the application of the Charter to Bulgarian, Crimean Tatar, German, Greek, Krimchak and Karaim in Crimea.

With reference to the Secretary General’s report on the State of democracy, human rights and the rule of law in Europe (May 2014), the Committee of Experts offers its expertise on regional or minority languages and their users to the Committee of Ministers and the Secretary General of the Council of Europe as well as the Ukrainian authorities, also on an ad hoc basis.

Appendix 5 – Regional and local authorities in France having adopted provisions of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

(with the date of adoption by the council of the regional or local authority concerned)

Saverne / Zabern, 10/2/2014

Mulhouse / Mülhausen, 17/2/2014

Roeschwoog / Röschwoog, 3/3/2014

Ribeauvillé / Rappoltsweiler, 21/3/2014

Soufflenheim / Sufflenheim, 29/4/2014

Lembach, 27/5/2014

Alsace-Lorraine-Champagne-Ardenne / Elsass-Lothringen-Champagne-Ardennen, 19/6/2014Note

Bas-Rhin / Unterelsass, 19/6/2014

Haut-Rhin / Oberelsass, 19/6/2014

Saint Hippolyte / Sankt Pilt, 7/7/2014

Buschwiller / Buschweiler, 29/9/2014

Fessenheim, 7/10/2014

Drusenheim, 22/10/2014

Sommerau (comprising Allenwiller / Allenweiler, Birkenwald, Salenthal, Singrist), 23/10/2014Note

Scharrachbergheim-Irmstett, 24/11/2014

Kolbsheim, 22/12/2014

Saint-Louis / Sankt Ludwig, 7/1/2015

Stutzheim-Offenheim / Stützheim-Offenheim, 9/2/2015

Dannemarie / Dammerkirch, 17/2/2015

Schleithal, 6/3/2015

Geiswiller / Geisweiler, 2/4/2015

Bischwiller / Bischweiler, 20/4/2015

Strasbourg / Straßburg, 9/5/2015

Appendix 6 – Draft instrument of ratification of Georgia concerning the European Charter for Regional or Minority LanguagesNote

1. Georgia declares that “regional or minority languages” in the sense of Article 1, paragraph a and Article 2, paragraph 1 of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages are the languages of the national minorities.

2. In accordance with Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Charter, Georgia declares that Article 7, paragraphs 1-4 of Part II of the Charter (“objectives and principles”) shall apply to the following minority languagesNote: Azerbaijani, Assyrian, Abkhazian, Greek, German, Estonian, (Urum) Turkish, Kurmanji/Kurdish, Ossetian, Polish, Russian, Armenian, Udi, Ukrainian, Kist/Chechen and Avar.

3. In accordance with Article 2, paragraph 2 and Article 3, paragraph 1 of the Charter, Georgia declares that the following provisions of Part III of the Charter (“measures to promote the use of regional or minority languages in public life”) shall apply to Abkhazian in Abkhazia:

Article 8 – Education

Paragraph 1.a.i; b.i; c.i; d.i; e.i; f.iii; g; h.

Paragraph 2.

Article 9 – Judicial authorities

Paragraph 1.a.i; a.ii; a.iii; a.iv; b.ii; c.i; c.ii.

Article 10 – Administrative authorities and public services

Paragraph 1.a.i; b; c.

Paragraph 2.a; b; c; d; e; f; g.

Paragraph 3.a.

Paragraph 4.a; b; c.

Paragraph 5.

Article 11 – Media

Paragraph 1.a.iii; b.i; c.i; d; e.i; f.i; g.

Paragraph 2.

Paragraph 3.

Article 12 – Cultural activities and facilities

Paragraph 1.a; b; c; d; e; f.

Article 13 – Economic and social life

Paragraph 1.a.

Article 14 – Transfrontier exchanges

Paragraph a.

Paragraph b.

4. In accordance with Article 2 paragraph 2, and Article 3, paragraph 1 of the Charter, Georgia declares that the following provisions of Part III of the Charter (“measures to promote the use of regional or minority languages in public life”) shall apply to Abkhazian (outside Abkhazia), Ossetian, Kist/Chechen, Avar and Udi:

a) Abkhazian (outside Abkhazia) and Ossetian:

Article 8 – Education

Paragraph 1.a.iii (concerning measure ii); b.iv (concerning measure iii); c.iv (concerning measure iii); e.ii; f.iii; h; i.

Paragraph 2.

Article 9 – Judicial authorities

Paragraph 1.a.ii; b.ii; c.ii.

Paragraph 3.

Article 10 – Administrative authorities and public services

Paragraph 1.a.iv; b.

Paragraph 2.b.

Paragraph 3.c.

Paragraph 4.a; b; c.

Article 11 – Media

Paragraph 1.a.iii; c.ii; d; e.i; f.ii; g.

Paragraph 2.

Paragraph 3.

Article 12 – Cultural activities and facilities

Paragraph 1.a; b; d; e; f; g.

Paragraph 2.

Paragraph 3.

Article 13 – Economic and social life

Paragraph 1.a; d.

Paragraph 2.c.

b) Kist/Chechen:

Article 8 – Education

Paragraph 1.a.iii (concerning measure ii); b.iv (concerning measure iii); c.iv (concerning measure iii); d.iv (concerning measure iii); e.ii; f.iii; h; i.

Paragraph 2.

Article 9 – Judicial authorities

Paragraph 1.a.ii; b.ii; c.ii.

Paragraph 3.

Article 10 – Administrative authorities and public services

Paragraph 1.a.iv; b.

Paragraph 2.b.

Paragraph 4.a; b; c.

Article 11 – Media

Paragraph 1.a.iii; d; f.ii; g.

Paragraph 2.

Paragraph 3.

Article 12 – Cultural activities and facilities

Paragraph 1.a; b; d; e; f; h.

Paragraph 2.

Paragraph 3.

Article 13 – Economic and social life

Paragraph 1.a; c; d.

Paragraph 2.b; c.

c) Avar:

Article 8 – Education

Paragraph 1.a.iii (concerning measure ii); b.iv (concerning measure iii); c.iv (concerning measure iii); e.ii; f.iii; h; i.

Paragraph 2.

Article 9 – Judicial authorities

Paragraph 1.a.ii; b.ii; c.ii.

Paragraph 3.

Article 10 – Administrative authorities and public services

Paragraph 1.a.iv; b.

Paragraph 2.b.

Paragraph 3.c.

Paragraph 4.a; b; c.

Article 11 – Media

Paragraph 1.a.iii; d; e.i; f.ii; g.

Paragraph 2.

Paragraph 3.

Article 12 – Cultural activities and facilities

Paragraph 1.a; b; d; e; f; g.

Paragraph 2.

Paragraph 3.

Article 13 – Economic and social life

Paragraph 1.a; d.

Paragraph 2.c.

d) Udi:

Article 8 – Education

Paragraph 1.a.iii (concerning measure ii); b.iv (concerning measure iii); c.iv (concerning measure iii); d.iv (concerning measure iii); e.ii; f.iii; h; i.

Paragraph 2.

Article 9 – Judicial authorities

Paragraph 1.a.ii; b.ii; c.ii.

Article 10 – Administrative authorities and public services

Paragraph 1.a.iv.

Paragraph 2.b.

Paragraph 4.a; b; c.

Article 11 – Media

Paragraph 1.a.iii; d; f.ii; g.

Paragraph 2.

Paragraph 3.

Article 12 – Cultural activities and facilities

Paragraph 1.a; b; d; e; f; h.

Paragraph 2.

Paragraph 3.

Article 13 – Economic and social life

Paragraph 1.a; c; d.

Paragraph 2.b; c.

5. Georgia declares that, for the purpose of the implementation of the Charter, there are no regional languages used on its territory.

6. Georgia declares that the application of the provisions of the Charter to the minority languages shall not be to the detriment of the Georgian language as the state language and the need to learn it.

7. Georgia declares that it will also consider applying provisions of Part III of the Charter to minority languages not specified in paragraphs 3 and 4 of this Declaration as soon as the policies and practice related to such languages have been further defined.

Georgian version:

რეგიონულ ან უმცირესობათა ენების ევროპული ქარტიის საქართველოს რატიფიცირების ინსტრუმენტის პროექტიNote

1. საქართველო აცხადებს, რომ „რეგიონულ ან უმცირესობათა ენებს“, როგორც ეს გაგებულია „რეგიონული და უმცირესობათა ენების ევროპული ქარტიის” 1-ლი მუხლის, „ა” პუნქტით და მე-2 მუხლის, 1-ლი პუნქტით, წარმოადგენს ეროვნულ უმცირესობათა ენებს.

2. „რეგიონული ან უმცირესობების ენების ევროპული ქარტიის” მე-2 მუხლის 1-ლი პუნქტის თანახმად, საქართველო აცხადებს, რომ ქარტიის II ნაწილის მე-7 მუხლის 1-4 პუნქტები („მიზნები და პრინციპები“) უნდა გავრცელდეს შემდეგ უმცირესობათა ენებზე: აზერბაიჯანული, ასურული, აფხაზური, ბერძნული, გერმანული, ესტონური, (ურუმეულ) თურქული, კურმანჯი/ქურთული, ოსური, პოლონური, რუსული, სომხური, უდიური, უკრაინული, ქისტურ/ჩეჩნური, ხუნძური.

3. ქარტიის მე-2 მუხლის მე-2 პუნქტისა და მე-3 მუხლის 1-ლი პუნქტის თანახმად, საქართველო აცხადებს, რომ ქარტიის III ნაწილით („საზოგადოებრივ ცხოვრებაში რეგიონული ან უმცირესობათა ენების ხელშეწყობის ზომები“) გათვალისწინებული შემდეგი დებულებები უნდა გავრცელდეს აფხაზურზე აფხაზეთში:

მუხლი 8 – განათლება

პუნქტი 1.ა.i; ბ.i; გ.i; დ.i; ე.i; ვ.iii; ზ; თ.

პუნქტი 2.

მუხლი 9 – სასამართლო ორგანოები

პუნქტი 1.ა.i; ა.ii; ა.iii; ა.iv; ბ.ii; გ.i; გ.ii.

მუხლი 10 – ადმინისტრაციული ორგანოები და საჯარო სამსახურები

პუნქტი 1.ა.i; ბ; გ.

პუნქტი 2.ა; ბ; გ; დ; ე; ვ; ზ.

პუნქტი 3.ა.

პუნქტი 4.ა; ბ; გ.

პუნქტი 5.

მუხლი 11 – მედია

პუნქტი 1.ა.iii; ბ.i; გ.i; დ; ე.i; ვ.i; ზ.

პუნქტი 2.

პუნქტი 3.

მუხლი 12 – კულტურული საქმიანობა და საშუალებები

პუნქტი 1.ა; ბ; გ; დ; ე; ვ.

მუხლი 13 – ეკონომიკური და სოციალური ცხოვრება

პუნქტი 1.ა.

მუხლი 14 – სახელმწიფოთაშორისი გაცვლები

პუნქტი ა.

პუნქტი ბ.

4. ქარტიის მე-2 მუხლის მე-2 პუნქტისა და მე-3 მუხლის 1-ლი პუნქტის თანახმად, საქართველო აცხადებს, რომ ქარტიის III ნაწილით („საზოგადოებრივ ცხოვრებაში რეგიონული ან უმცირესობათა ენების ხელშეწყობის ზომები“) გათვალისწინებული შემდეგი დებულებები უნდა გავრცელდეს აფხაზურ (აფხაზეთის გარეთ), ოსურ, ქისტურ/ჩეჩნურ, ხუნძურ და უდიურ ენებზე:

ა) აფხაზური (აფხაზეთის გარეთ) და ოსური:

მუხლი 8 – განათლება

პუნქტი 1.ა.iii (რომელიც ეხება ii ზომას); ბ.iv (რომელიც ეხება iii ზომას); გ.iv (რომელიც ეხება iii ზომას); ე.ii; ვ.iii; თ; ი.

პუნქტი 2.

მუხლი 9 – სასამართლო ორგანოები

პუნქტი 1.ა.ii; ბ.ii; გ.ii.

პუნქტი 3.

მუხლი 10 – ადმინისტრაციული ორგანოები და საჯარო სამსახურები

პუნქტი 1.ა.iv; ბ.

პუნქტი 2.ბ.

პუნქტი 3.გ.

პუნქტი 4.ა; ბ; გ.

მუხლი 11 – მედია

პუნქტი 1.ა.iii; გ.ii; დ; ე.i; ვ.ii; ზ.

პუნქტი 2.

პუნქტი 3.

მუხლი 12 – კულტურული საქმიანობა და საშუალებები

პუნქტი 1.ა; ბ; დ; ე; ვ; ზ.

პუნქტი 2.

პუნქტი 3.

მუხლი 13 – ეკონომიკური და სოციალური ცხოვრება

პუნქტი 1.ა; დ.

პუნქტი 2. გ.

ბ) ქისტურ/ჩეჩნური:

მუხლი 8 – განათლება

პუნქტი 1.ა.iii (რომელიც ეხება ii ზომას); ბ.iv (რომელიც ეხება iii ზომას); გ.iv (რომელიც ეხება iii ზომას); დ.iv (რომელიც ეხება iii ზომას); ე.ii; ვ.iii; თ; ი.

პუნქტი 2.

მუხლი 9 – სასამართლო ორგანოები

პუნქტი 1.ა.ii; ბ.ii; გ.ii.

პუნქტი 3.

მუხლი 10 – ადმინისტრაციული ორგანოები და საჯარო სამსახურები

პუნქტი 1.ა.iv; ბ.

პუნქტი 2.ბ.

პუნქტი 4.ა; ბ; გ.

მუხლი 11 – მედია

პუნქტი 1.ა.iii; დ; ვ.ii; ზ.

პუნქტი 2.

პუნქტი 3.

მუხლი 12 – კულტურული საქმიანობა და საშუალებები

პუნქტი 1.ა; ბ; დ; ე; ვ; თ.

პუნქტი 2.

პუნქტი 3.

მუხლი 13 – ეკონომიკური და სოციალური ცხოვრება

პუნქტი 1.ა; გ; დ.

პუნქტი 2. ბ; გ.

გ) ხუნძური:

მუხლი 8 – განათლება

პუნქტი 1.ა.iii (რომელიც ეხება ii ზომას); ბ.iv (რომელიც ეხება iii ზომას); გ.iv (რომელიც ეხება iii ზომას); ე.ii; ვ.iii; თ; ი.

პუნქტი 2.

მუხლი 9 – სასამართლო ორგანოები

პუნქტი 1.ა.ii; ბ.ii; გ.ii.

პუნქტი 3.

მუხლი 10 – ადმინისტრაციული ორგანოები და საჯარო სამსახურები

პუნქტი 1.ა.iv; ბ.

პუნქტი 2.ბ.

პუნქტი 3.გ.

პუნქტი 4.ა; ბ; გ.

მუხლი 11 – მედია

პუნქტი 1.ა.iii; დ; ე.i; ვ.ii; ზ.

პუნქტი 2.

პუნქტი 3.

მუხლი 12 – კულტურული საქმიანობა და საშუალებები

პუნქტი 1.ა; ბ; დ; ე; ვ; ზ.

პუნქტი 2.

პუნქტი 3.

მუხლი 13 – ეკონომიკური და სოციალური ცხოვრება

პუნქტი 1.ა; დ.

პუნქტი 2.გ.

დ) უდიური:

მუხლი 8 – განათლება

პუნქტი 1.ა.iii (რომელიც ეხება ii ზომას); ბ.iv (რომელიც ეხება iii ზომას); გ.iv (რომელიც ეხება iii ზომას); დ.iv (რომელიც ეხება iii ზომას); ე.ii; ვ.iii; თ; ი.

პუნქტი 2.

მუხლი 9 – სასამართლო ორგანოები

პუნქტი 1.ა.ii; ბ.ii; გ.ii.

მუხლი 10 – ადმინისტრაციული ორგანოები და საჯარო სამსახურები

პუნქტი 1.ა.iv.

პუნქტი 2.ბ.

პუნქტი 4.ა; ბ; გ.

მუხლი 11 – მედია

პუნქტი 1.ა.iii; დ; ვ.ii; ზ.

პუნქტი 2.

პუნქტი 3.

მუხლი 12 – კულტურული საქმიანობა და საშუალებები

პუნქტი 1.ა; ბ; დ; ე; ვ; თ.

პუნქტი 2.

პუნქტი 3.

მუხლი 13 – ეკონომიკური და სოციალური ცხოვრება

პუნქტი 1.ა; გ; დ.

პუნქტი 2. ბ; გ.

5. საქართველო აცხადებს, რომ ქარტიის შესრულების მიზნით, მის ტერიტორიაზე არ გამოიყენება რაიმე რეგიონული ენა.

6. საქართველო აცხადებს, რომ უმცირესობათა ენების მიმართ ქარტიის დებულებების გამოყენებამ ზიანი არ უნდა მიაყენოს ქართულს, როგორც სახელმწიფო ენას და მისი შესწავლის საჭიროებას.

7. საქართველო აცხადებს, რომ მომავალში ის ასევე განიხილავს ქარტიის მე-3 ნაწილის დებულებების გამოყენების შესაძლებლობას იმ უმცირესობათა ენების მიმართ, რომლებიც არ არის მოხსენიებული დეკლარაციის მე-3 და მე-4 პუნქტებში, მას შემდეგ, რაც მოხდება ამ ენების მიმართ ქვეყნის პოლიტიკისა და პრაქტიკის შემდგომი განსაზღვრა.

Appendix 7 – Draft instrument of ratification/law of ratification of the Republic of Moldova concerning the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

List of provisions of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages to be included in the instrument/law of ratification of the Republic of Moldova, as agreed during the national experts’ meetingNote of 2-3 February 2012, with the participation of experts of the Council of Europe and the European Centre for Minority Issues.

For the ratification of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, the following is proposed:

1. The provisions of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages shall be applied to eight minority languages used on the territory of the Republic of Moldova, which have been, in accordance with the “international rule”Note, traditionally present in this territory for more than one hundred years: Bulgarian, Gagauz, German, Yiddish, Polish, Romani, Russian and Ukrainian.

2. In accordance with Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Charter, the Republic of Moldova declares that Part II of the Charter shall apply to German, Yiddish, Polish and Romani.

3. In accordance with Article 2, paragraph 2 of the Charter, the Republic of Moldova declares that the following provisions of Part III of the Charter shall apply to Russian, Gagauz, Ukrainian and Bulgarian:

Russian

Article 8 – Education

Paragraph 1 a.i; b.i; c.i; d.i; e.i; f.i; g; h.

Paragraph 2.

Article 9 – Judicial authorities

Paragraph 1.a.i; a.ii; a.iii; a.iv; b.i; b.ii; b.iii; c.i; c.ii; c.iii.

Paragraph 2.a.

Article 10 – Administrative authorities and public services

Paragraph 1.a.i; b; c.

Paragraph 2.a; b; c; d; e; f; g.

Paragraph 3.a.

Paragraph 4.a; b; c.

Paragraph 5.

Article 11 – Media

Paragraph 1.a.iii; b.ii; c.ii; d; e.i; f.ii; g.

Paragraph 2.

Paragraph 3.

Article 12 – Cultural activities and facilities

Paragraph 1.a; b; c; d; e; f; h.

Paragraph 2.

Paragraph 3.

Article 13 – Economic and social life

Paragraph 1.a; b; c; d.

Paragraph 2.a; b; c; d; e.

Article 14 – Transfrontier exchanges

Paragraph a.

Paragraph b.

Gagauz

Article 8 – Education

Paragraph 1.a.i; ii; b.i; ii; iii; c.i; ii; iii; d.i; ii; iii; e.ii; iii; f.i; ii; iii; g; h.

Paragraph 2.

Article 9 – Judicial authorities

Paragraph 1.a.ii; a.iii; a.iv; b.ii; iii; c.ii; iii.

Article 10 – Administrative authorities and public services

Paragraph 1.a.i; a.ii (in Gagauzia) / a.iii (outside Gagauzia); b; c.

Paragraph 2.a; b; c; d; e (in Gagauzia); f (outside Gagauzia); g.

Paragraph 3.a (in Gagauzia) / 3.b (outside Gagauzia).

Paragraph 4.a; b; c; d.

Paragraph 5.

Article 11 – Media

Paragraph 1.a.iii; b.i; ii; c.i; ii; d.ii; e.i; ii; f.i; ii; g.

Paragraph 2.

Paragraph 3.

Article 12 – Cultural activities and facilities

Paragraph 1.a; b; c; d; e; f; h; g.

Article 13 – Economic and social life

Paragraph 1.a; b; c; d.

Paragraph 2.a; b; c; d; e.

Article 14 – Transfrontier exchanges

Paragraph a.

Paragraph b.

Ukrainian

Article 8 – Education

Paragraph 1.a.ii; b.ii; c.ii; d.ii; e.i; f.i; g; h.

Paragraph 2.

Article 9 – Judicial authorities

Paragraph 1.a.ii; a.iii; a.iv; b.ii; c.ii.

Article 10 – Administrative authorities and public services

Paragraph 1.a.ii; b; c.

Paragraph 2.a; b; c; d; e; f; g.

Paragraph 3.b.

Paragraph 4.c.

Paragraph 5.

Article 11 – Media

Paragraph 1.a.iii; b.ii; c.ii; d; e.i; f.ii; g.

Paragraph 2.

Paragraph 3.

Article 12 – Cultural activities and facilities

Paragraph 1.a; b; c; d; e; f; h.

Paragraph 2.

Paragraph 3.

Article 13 – Economic and social life

Paragraph 1.a; c; d.

Paragraph 2.b; c; d.

Article 14 – Transfrontier exchanges

Paragraph a.

Paragraph b.

Bulgarian

Article 8 – Education

Paragraph 1.a.ii; b.ii; c.ii; d.iii; e.i; f.i; g; h.

Paragraph 2.

Article 9 – Judicial authorities

Paragraph 1.a.ii; a.iii; a.iv; b.ii; c.ii.

Article 10 – Administrative authorities and public services

Paragraph 1.a.iii; b; c.

Paragraph 2.a; b; c; d; g.

Paragraph 3.b.

Paragraph 4.c.

Paragraph 5.

Article 11 – Media

Paragraph 1.a.iii; b.ii; c.i; d; e.i; f.i; g.

Paragraph 2.

Paragraph 3.

Article 12 – Cultural activities and facilities

Paragraph 1.a; b; c; d; e; f; h.

Paragraph 2.

Paragraph 3.

Article 13 – Economic and social life

Paragraph 1.a; b.

Paragraph 2.b; c; d.

Article 14 – Transfrontier exchanges

Paragraph a.

Paragraph b.

Romanian version:

Proiect de instrument/lege de ratificare a Cartei Europene a Limbilor Regionale şi Minoritare de Republica Moldova

Lista prevederilor Cartei Europene a Limbilor Regionale şi Minoritare propuse pentru a fi incluse în proiectul instrumentului/legii de ratificare, convenită în cadrul reuniunii grupului de experți naţionaliNote din 2-3 februarie 2012, cu participarea experţilor din partea Consiliului Europei şi European Centre for Minority Issues

Pentru ratificarea Cartei Europene a Limbilor Regionale sau Minoritare se propun următoarele:

1. Prevederile Cartei Europene a Limbilor Regionale sau Minoritare se aplică celor opt limbi minoritare folosite pe teritoriul Republicii Moldova, care sunt, potrivit „regulii internaţionale”Note, prezente în mod tradiţional pe acest teritoriu de mai mult de o sută de ani: limba bulgară, limba găgăuză, limba germană, limba idiş, limba poloneză, limba romani, limba rusă și limba ucraineană.

2. Potrivit prevederilor articolului 2, paragraful 1 din Cartă, Republica Moldova declară că Partea a II- a Cartei se aplică limbilor germană, idiș, poloneză și romani.

3. Potrivit prevederilor articolului 2, paragraful 2 din Cartă, Republica Moldova declară că următoarele prevederi ale Părții a III-a se aplică limbilor rusă, găgăuză, ucraineană și bulgară:

Limba rusă

Articolul 8 – Învăţământ

Paragraful 1 a.i; b.i; c.i; d.i; e.i; f.i; g; h.

Paragraful 2

Articolul 9 – Autorităţi judiciare

Paragraph 1.a.i; a.ii; a.iii; a.iv; b.i; b.ii; b.iii; c.i; c.ii c.iii.

Paragraph 2.a.

Articolul 10 – Autorităţi administrative şi servicii publice

Paragraful 1.a.i; b; c.

Paragraful 2.a; b; c; d; e; f; g.

Paragraful 3.a.

Paragraful 4.a; b; c.

Paragraful 5.

Articolul 11 – Mijloace de informare în masă

Paragraful 1.a.iii; b.ii; c.ii; d; e.i; f.ii; g.

Paragraful 2.

Paragraful 3.

Articolul 12 – Activităţi şi facilităţi culturale

Paragraful 1.a; b; c; d; e; f; h.

Paragraful 2.

Paragraful 3.

Articolul 13 – Viaţă economică şi socială

Paragraful 1.a; b; c; d.

Paragraful 2.a; b; c; d; e.

Articolul 14 – Schimburi transfrontaliere

Paragraful a.

Paragraful b.

Limba găgăuză

Articolul 8 – Învăţământ

Paragraful 1.a.i; ii; b.i; ii; iii; c.i; ii; iii; d.i; ii; iii; e.ii; iii; f.i; ii; iii; g; h.

Paragraful 2.

Articolul 9 – Autorităţi judiciare

Paragraful 1.a.ii; a.iii; a.iv; b.ii; iii; c.ii; iii.

Articolul 10 – Autorităţi administrative şi servicii publice

Paragraful 1.a.i; a.ii (în Găgăuzia) / a.iii (în afara Găgăuziei); b; c.

Paragraful 2.a; b; c; d; e (în Găgăuzia); f (în afara Găgăuziei); g.

Paragraful 3.a (în Găgăuzia) / 3.b (în afara Găgăuziei).

Paragraful 4.a; b; c; d.

Paragraful 5.

Articolul 11 – Mijloace de informare în masă

Paragraful 1.a.iii; b.i; ii; c.i; ii; d.ii; e.i; ii. f.i; ii; g.

Paragraful 2.

Paragraful 3.

Articolul 12 – Activităţi şi facilităţi culturale

Paragraful 1.a; b; c; d; e; f; h; g.

Articolul 13 – Viaţă economică şi socială

Paragraful 1.a; b; c; d.

Paragraful 2.a; b; c; d; e.

Articolul 14 – Schimburi transfrontaliere

Paragraful a.

Paragraful b.

Limba ucraineană

Articolul 8 – Învăţământ

Paragraful 1.a.ii; b.ii; c.ii; d.ii; e.i; f.i; g; h.

Paragraful 2.

Articolul 9 – Autorităţi judiciare

Paragraful 1.a.ii; a.iii; a.iv; b.ii; c.ii.

Articolul 10 – Autorităţi administrative şi servicii publice

Paragraful 1.a.ii; b; c.

Paragraful 2.a; b; c; d; e; f; g.

Paragraful 3.b.

Paragraful 4.c.

Paragraful 5.

Articolul 11 – Mijloace de informare în masă

Paragraful 1.a.iii; b.ii; c.ii; d; e.i; f.ii; g.

Paragraful 2.

Paragraful 3.

Articolul 12 – Activităţi şi facilităţi culturale

Paragraful 1.a; b; c; d; e; f; h.

Paragraful 2.

Paragraful 3.

Articolul 13 – Viaţă economică şi socială

Paragraful 1.a; c; d.

Paragraful 2.b; c; d.

Articolul 14 – Schimburi transfrontaliere

Paragraful a.

Paragraful b.

Limba bulgară

Articolul 8 – Învăţământ

Paragraful 1.a.ii; b.ii; c.ii; d.iii; e.i; f.i; g; h.

Paragraful 2.

Articolul 9 – Autorităţi judiciare

Paragraful 1.a.ii; a.iii; a.iv; b.ii; c.ii.

Articolul 10 – Autorităţi administrative şi servicii publice

Paragraful 1.a.iii; b; c.

Paragraful 2.a; b; c; d; g.

Paragraful 3.b.

Paragraful 4.c.

Paragraful 5.

Articolul 11 – Mijloace de informare în masă

Paragraful 1.a.iii; b.ii; c.i; d; e.i; f.i; g.

Paragraful 2.

Paragraful 3.

Articolul 12 – Activităţi şi facilităţi culturale

Paragraful 1.a; b; c; d; e; f; h.

Paragraful 2.

Paragraful 3.

Articolul 13 – Viaţă economică şi socială

Paragraful 1.a; b.

Paragraful 2.b; c; d.

Articolul 14 – Schimburi transfrontaliere

Paragraful a.

Paragraful b.

Appendix 8 – Expert proposal for a draft instrument of ratification of the Russian Federation concerning the European Charter for Regional or Minority LanguagesNote

1. In accordance with Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Charter, the Russian Federation undertakes to apply the provisions of Part II to all the regional or minority languages spoken within its territory and which comply with the definition in Article 1.

2. In accordance with Article 2, paragraph 2, and Article 3, paragraph 1, of the Charter, the Russian Federation declares that the provisions set out below shall apply to the following languages in the specified territories:Note Abaza (Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia), Adyghe (Republic of Adygea), Aghul (Republic of Dagestan), Altai (Republic of Altai), Avar (Republic of Dagestan), Azeri (Republic of Dagestan), Balkar (Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria), Bashkir (Republic of Bashkortostan), Buryat (Republic of Buryatia), Chechen (Republics of Chechnya and Dagestan), Cherkess (Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia), Chuvash (Republic of Chuvashia), Dargin (Republic of Dagestan), Ingush (Republic of Ingushetia), Kabardian (Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria), Kalmyk (Republic of Kalmykia), Karachay (Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia), Khakas (Republic of Khakasia), Komi (Republic of Komi), Kumyk (Republic of Dagestan), Lak (Republic of Dagestan), Lezgian (Republic of Dagestan), Mountain and Meadow Mari (Republic of Mari El), Moksha and Erzya Mordovian (Republic of Mordovia), Nogai (Republics of Dagestan and Karachay-Cherkessia), Ossetic (Republic of North Ossetia), Rutul (Republic of Dagestan), Sakha (Republic of Sakha), Tabasaran (Republic of Dagestan), Tat (Republic of Dagestan), Tatar (Republic of Tatarstan), Tsakhur (Republic of Dagestan), Tuvan (Republic of Tuva) and Udmurt (Republic of Udmurtia)

Article 8 – Education

Paragraph 1.a.i; b.ii; c.ii; d.ii; e.ii; f.i; g; h; i.

Article 9 – Judicial authorities

Paragraph 1.a.ii; a.iii; a.iv; b.ii; b.iii; c.ii; c.iii.

Paragraph 2.a.

Paragraph 3.

Article 10 – Administrative authorities and public services

Paragraph 1.a.ii; b; c.

Paragraph 2.a; b; c; d; e; f; g.

Paragraph 3.a.

Paragraph 4.c.

Paragraph 5.

Article 11 – Media

Paragraph 1.a.i; b.ii; c.ii; d; e.i; f.i; g.

Paragraph 2.

Paragraph 3.

Article 12 – Cultural activities and facilities

Paragraph 1.a; b; c; d; e; f; g; h.

Paragraph 3.

Article 13 – Economic and social life

Paragraph 1.a; b; c; d.

Paragraph 2.b; c; e.

Article 14 – Transfrontier exchanges

Paragraph a.

Paragraph b.

3. In accordance with Article 2, paragraph 2, and Article 3, paragraph 1, of the Charter, the Russian Federation declares that the provisions set out below shall apply to the following languages in the specified territories: Buryat (Agin-Buryat Okrug and Ust-Orda Buryat Okrug), German (National Rayons of Asowo and Halbstadt), Karelian (Karelia), Kazakh (Republic of Altai), Komi-Permyak (Komi-Permyak Okrug) and Korean (Korean National Micro Rayon ‘Su-Chan’)

Article 8 – Education

Paragraph 1.a.ii; b.ii; c.ii; d.ii; e.ii; f.ii; g; h; i.

Article 9 – Judicial authorities

Paragraph 1.a.ii; b.iii; c.iii.

Paragraph 2.b.

Article 10 – Administrative authorities and public services

Paragraph 1.a.iii; b; c.

Paragraph 2.a; b; c; d; e; f; g.

Paragraph 3.b.

Paragraph 4.c.

Paragraph 5.

Article 11 – Media

Paragraph 1.a.ii; b.ii; c.ii; d; e.i; f.i; g.

Paragraph 2.

Paragraph 3.

Article 12 – Cultural activities and facilities

Paragraph 1.a; b; c; d; e; f; g.

Article 13 – Economic and social life

Paragraph 1.a; d.

Paragraph 2.b; c.

Article 14 – Transfrontier exchanges

Paragraph a.

Paragraph b.

4. In accordance with Article 2, paragraph 2, and Article 3, paragraph 1, of the Charter, the Russian Federation declares that the provisions set out below shall apply to the following languages: Abaza, Adyghe, Aghul, Altai, Armenian, Avar, Azeri, Balkar, Bashkir, Belorussian, Buryat, Chechen, Cherkess, Chuvash, Dargin, Georgian, German, Greek, Ingush, Kabardian, Kalmyk, Karachay, Karelian, Kazakh, Khakas, Komi, Komi-Permyak, Korean, Kumyk, Lak, Lezgian, Mari (Mountain and Meadow), Moldovan, Mordovian (Moksha and Erzya), Nogai, Ossetic, Polish, Rutul, Sakha, Tabasaran, Tajik, Tat, Tatar, Tsakhur, Turkish, Tuvan, Udmurt, Ukrainian and Uzbek

Article 8 – Education

Paragraph 1.a.iii; b.iv; c.iv; d.iv; f.ii; g; h.

Paragraph 2.

Article 9 – Judicial authorities

Paragraph 1.a.ii.

Article 10 – Administrative authorities and public services

Paragraph 1.a.iv; b; c.

Paragraph 2.a; b; c; d; g.

Paragraph 3.c.

Paragraph 4.c.

Paragraph 5.

Article 11 – Media

Paragraph 1.a.iii; b.ii; c.ii; d; e.ii; f.ii; g.

Paragraph 2.

Paragraph 3.

Article 12 – Cultural activities and facilities

Paragraph 1.a; b; c; d; e; f.

Article 13 – Economic and social life

Paragraph 1.a.

Article 14 – Transfrontier exchanges

Paragraph a.

Paragraph b.

The aforementioned provisions shall apply in the territories in which these regional or minority languages are used. Pursuant to paragraphs 2 and 3 above, the territory of republics and/or national administrative-territorial entities where a regional or minority language is a State language or used by the titular people shall be excluded from the scope of application.

Appendix 9 – Statement adopted by the Committee of Experts of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) on 5 November 2015 on the occasion of the International Romani Language Day

Out of the 25 countries that have ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML), 15 have officially recognised Romani as a minority language traditionally present on their territory. This is the highest number of ratifications for a single language under the Charter and it reflects, among others, the status of Romani as a European language.

From the two options of ratification, general protection under Part II of the Charter or the definition of special provisions in support of a language under Part III, the majority, two-thirds of the countries, opted for general protection that automatically applies to all languages traditionally spoken on the territory of a state.

The high level of ratifications for Romani – mostly based on an equality principle between all minority languages of the country in question – often lack implementation. This imbalance in the level of ratification as well as the deficits in implementation indicate, at least to some extent, the reality of marginalisation of both Romani and its speakers. On the other hand, shortcomings also result from the fact that the historical situation of Romani is not sufficiently taken into consideration. Romani is a language in transition. It is still developing from an exclusively oral language of private and everyday life to an oral and written language with both informal and formal public functions.

Not only because of the number of ratifications, but also because of its special situation, Romani is given high priority in the context of the Charter. To contribute to the sociocultural development of Romani is one of the main concerns of the ECRML Committee of Experts – a contribution that also intends to support the socio-economic and political emancipation of the Roma in general. Therefore, the Committee of Experts invites states on whose territory Romani is traditionally spoken to include this language in their ratification instruments.

Romani is in most countries in a vulnerable position and consequently, special measures are needed from the authorities to support the language. The Committee of Experts calls upon all member states to strengthen the protection and promotion of Romani as a part of the European cultural heritage in all spheres, and particularly in education and cultural life.

Appendix 10 – Opinion of the Committee of Experts of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) on Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 2040 (2014)

(adopted by the Committee of Experts on 26 June 2014)

1 The Committee of Experts of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages welcomes Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 2040 (2014) “The situation and rights of national minorities in Europe” as an expression of the Council of Europe’s continuous efforts to strengthen and enforce the protection and promotion of national minorities and their languages in all the Council of Europe member States.
2 The protection of national minorities constitutes a traditional key competence of the Council of Europe for which the Organisation has developed unique legal standards. This work contributes to safeguarding Europe’s cultural wealth and traditions, as well as furthering important democratic principles, democratic participation and societal stability in Europe. The Committee of Experts fully endorses the wish expressed in paragraph 3 of Recommendation 2040 (2014) that minority protection should remain a priority on the political agenda of the Council of Europe and its member States.
3 The Committee of Experts notes that the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages is the only Convention specifically dealing with the protection and promotion of the languages used by traditional national minorities or language groups. The Charter sets out a framework for the recognition and active promotion of such languages in the fields of education, judiciary, administration, media, culture, economic and social life, and cross-border exchanges. The Committee of Experts welcomes initiatives promoting the cultural and especially linguistic identity of traditional national minorities, as suggested in paragraph 4.2 of the said Recommendation.
4 Concerning paragraph 4.3 of the Recommendation, the Committee of Experts reiterates its position that measures raising awareness of the existence of regional or minority languages make an important contribution to mutual understanding and peace as well as to the maintenance and development of Europe’s cultural wealth.
5 Respect for languages and the related cultures serves to integrate people with different linguistic and cultural backgrounds. It thus helps to further stability and unity as well as social cohesion in diverse and multilingual societies. Ratification of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages represents a significant contribution to achieving these goals. To date, the Charter has been ratified by 25 Council of Europe member States and has been signed by eight more. The Committee of Experts encourages the Committee of Ministers to continue promoting the signature and ratification of this important treaty in order to contribute to the building of a Europe based on the principles of human rights, democracy and diversity.

;